Chairperson: Danielle K. Nussberger, Ph.D.
Department of Theology Graduate Programs website

Degrees Offered

Theology

Master of Arts in Theology (M.A.)
Master of Arts in Christian Doctrine (M.A.C.D.)

Religious Studies

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)

Program Descriptions

The Department of Theology offers graduate programs aimed at providing students an integrated approach to theology emphasizing the scriptural, historical, systematic, and ethical approaches to study in the Catholic and Christian religious traditions. We aim to develop scholars capable of making significant contributions to theological research and teaching a broad range of subjects in theology and religion. Our programs have prepared graduates to secure teaching positions in over 200 colleges, universities, and other educational institutions as well as for vocations in pastoral ministry and other service-oriented and non-profit organizations.

The Master of Arts in Theology (M.A.) program is intended primarily for students who intend to pursue doctoral degrees in theology or religious studies. It also serves those working or aspiring to work in Church-related organizations involving teaching, religious formation, or other forms of theological communication.

The Master of Arts in Christian Doctrine (M.A.C.D.) program focuses on ecumenical appropriation and communication of Christian doctrine for students teaching or aspiring to teach in Catholic high schools, those interested in contributing to other avenues of religious education or formation, those interested in serving other pastoral needs in their religious communities, and those seeking personal theological enrichment.

The Doctor of Philosophy in Religious Studies (Ph.D.) program leads to a terminal academic degree signifying its recipient's advanced ability to teach and conduct research in the academic specialization of his or her choosing. Options for specialization include Judaism and Christianity in Antiquity, Historical Theology, Systematics Theology, Theological Ethics, and Theology and Society (including Healthcare and Medical Ethics).

Prerequisites for Admission

Master of Arts in Theology (M.A.) applicants should have an undergraduate degree with a major in theology, religious studies, or another field appropriate to their theological interests. An undergraduate degree with a minor in one of those fields is also acceptable. Ideally, applicants should possess basic familiarity with Christian Scripture and doctrines. Opportunities to make up for deficiencies in undergraduate education are available to students in need.

Master of Arts in Christian Doctrine (M.A.C.D.) applicants should have (a) an undergraduate degree with a major in theology or religious studies, and/or (b) a personal or professional background involving theology or religion. Ideally, applicants should possess basic familiarity with Christian Scripture and doctrines. Opportunities to make up for deficiencies in undergraduate education are available to students in need.

Doctor of Philosophy in Religious Studies (Ph.D.) applicants should possess a master's degree or equivalent graduate degree in theology, religious studies, or another field appropriate to their academic interests.

Application Deadlines

Master of Arts in Theology (M.A.) applicants seeking financial aid must submit their completed applications, including all supporting documents, by December 15 of the calendar year prior to the fall academic term in which they wish to enroll in the program. The department normally will not consider requests for financial aid from applicants seeking to enroll in the spring or summer term. Applicants not seeking financial aid may submit their applications at any time, albeit no less than one month prior to the commencement of the academic term in which they wish to enroll in the program.

Master of Arts in Christian Doctrine (M.A.C.D.) applicants may submit their completed applications, including all supporting documents, at any time and may enroll in the program in the fall, spring, or summer academic term, albeit no less than one month prior to the commencement of the academic term in which they wish to enroll in the program. The department will consider requests for financial aid regardless of the term in which applicants wish to enroll in the program.

Doctor of Philosophy in Religious Studies (Ph.D.) applicants seeking financial aid must submit their completed applications, including all supporting documents, by December 15 of the calendar year prior to the fall academic term in which they wish to enroll in the program. The department normally will not consider requests for financial aid from applicants seeking to enroll in the program in the spring or summer term. Applicants not seeking financial aid may submit their applications at any time, albeit no less than one month prior to the commencement of the academic term in which they wish to enroll in the program.

Application Requirements

Applicants to all of the department's graduate programs must submit their applications to the Graduate School using its online application management system.

Applicants to the M.A. program must submit the following materials:

  1. A completed application form and processing fee.
  2. Copies of transcripts from all previously attended higher education institutions other than Marquette University.1
  3. Results of the Graduate Record Examination (General Test only). Note: Although normally required, the GRE is optional for applicants who wish to begin the program fall 2021.
  4. A statement of purpose indicating the applicant's reasons for wanting to enter the program, areas of academic interest, vocational objectives, reasons for selecting Marquette's program, and/or how the applicant stands to contribute to the program's demographic diversity.
    1. Applicants lacking an undergraduate degree in theology or religious studies should indicate in their statements of purpose relevant college course work reflected in their transcripts.
  5. Three letters of recommendation.
  6. International applicants must provide TOEFL scores or other acceptable proof of English proficiency.
    1. International applicants who have completed another master's degree or anticipate completing another master's degree at an English-speaking higher education institution prior to enrolling in the M.A. program may request a waiver of this requirement.

Applicants to the M.A.C.D. program must submit the following materials:

  1. A completed application form and processing fee.
  2. Copies of transcripts from all previously attended higher education institutions other than Marquette University.1
  3. A statement of purpose indicating the applicant's reasons for wanting to enter the program, areas of academic interest, vocational objectives, reasons for selecting Marquette's program, and/or how the applicant stands to contribute to the program's demographic diversity.
    1. Applicants lacking an undergraduate degree in theology or religious studies should indicate in their statements of purpose relevant college course work reflected in their transcripts.
  4. Three letters of recommendation.
  5. International applicants must provide TOEFL scores or other acceptable proof of English proficiency.
    1. International applicants who have completed a master's degree or anticipate completing a master's degree at an English-speaking higher education institution prior to enrolling in the M.A.C.D. program may request a waiver of this requirement.

Applicants to the Ph.D. program must submit the following materials:

  1. A completed application form and processing fee.
  2. Copies of transcripts from all previously attended higher education institutions other than Marquette University.1
  3. Results of the Graduate Record Examination (General Test only). Note: Although normally required, the GRE is optional for applicants who wish to begin the program fall 2021.
  4. A statement of purpose indicating the applicant's reasons for wanting to enter the program, areas of academic interest, vocational objectives, reasons for selecting Marquette's program, and/or how the applicant stands to contribute to the program's demographic diversity.
    1. Applicants with language study experience should indicate formal graduate-level language course work reflected in their transcripts and/or private language study, along with estimations of present abilities reading, writing, and speaking the language or languages studied.
  5. An academic writing sample approximately 20 pages in length.
  6. Three letters of recommendation.
    1. Applicants currently enrolled in Marquette's M.A. in Theology program must supply three new letters of recommendation speaking to their performances in the M.A. program.
  7. International applicants must provide TOEFL scores or other acceptable proof of English proficiency.
    1. International applicants who have completed a master's degree or anticipate completing a master's degree at an English-speaking higher education institution prior to enrolling in the Ph.D. program may request a waiver of this requirement.

Master of Arts (M.A.) in Theology Requirements

Specializations: General Studies, Historical Theology, Judaism and Christianity in Antiquity, Systematic Theology/Theological Ethics, Theology and Society

Students must complete 30 credit hours of course work, pass a comprehensive examination and submit an approved final project. Students choosing the Judaism and Christianity in antiquity, historical theology, and systematic theology/theological ethics specializations must demonstrate proficiency in a modern language other than English. The following program description summarizes those requirements. Additional information may be found in the Department of Theology's Policies and Procedures.

Required Course work

All students must complete the following required core courses:

THEO 6110Old Testament Method3
THEO 6120New Testament Method3
THEO 6210Origen to Late Medieval3
THEO 6220Late Medieval to Early Modern3
THEO 6310Introduction to Systematic Theology3
THEO 6410Introduction to Theological Ethics3
Total Credit Hours18

Elective Course Options

THEO 6130The Gospels (JUCA)3
THEO 6330Christian Spirituality (SYTH/THET)3
THEO 6415Catholic Social Encyclical Tradition (SYTH/THET)3
All THEO courses numbered in the 8000, 8100, 8200 and 8300 ranges (JUCA)
All THEO courses numbered in the 8400 range (HITH)
All THEO courses numbered in the 8500 and 8600 ranges (SYTH/THET)

In consultation with their advisers and not later than the end of the first year of enrollment in the program, students must choose a specialization. Students' choice of specialization dictates the terms of their course of study. 

Specialization Requirements

Specializations in Judaism and Christianity in Antiquity, Historical Theology, and Systematic Theology/Theological Ethics

For the following three specializations, students may pursue either of two academic plans: Plan A or Plan B. Students are assumed to opt for Plan B unless expressly approved by the department's Graduate Committee to pursue Plan A instead.

  • Judaism and Christianity in Antiquity (JUCA)
  • Historical Theology (HITH)
  • Systematic Theology/Theological Ethics (SYTH/THET)

Plan A Requirements

Plan A requires the 18 credit hours of core course work as listed above, 3 credit hours in each of the two areas not chosen for the specialization, and 6 credit hours of supervised research toward a master's thesis. 

Required Course Work18
Elective Course Work (3 credit hours in each of the two areas not chosen)6
THEO 6999Master's Thesis6
Total Credit Hours30

Plan B Requirements

Plan B requires the 18 credit hours of core course work as listed above, 6 credit hours of elective course work in the area of the specialization, 3 credit hours in each of the two areas not chosen for the specialization, and the completion of a non-credit master's essay. 

Required Course Work18
Elective Course Work (elective course work in the area of the specialization)6
Elective Course Work (3 credit hours in each of the two areas not chosen)6
Master's Essay0
Total Credit Hours30

FOREIGN LANGUAGE REQUIREMENT 

Students choosing the Judaism and Christianity in antiquity, historical theology or systematic theology/theological ethics specialization are required to demonstrate proficiency in German, French or another modern language other than English essential to their research agenda. Students typically fulfills this requirement by earning a grade of B or above in course work or on a language examination administered by the Department of Languages, Literatures and Cultures.

COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION

The comprehensive examination is administered by the department's M.A. Examination Committee. The exam is offered once annually in April, although the committee entertains requests to administer it in November as needed. The examination is in three parts, each of which has two sections:

  1. Judaism and Christianity in Antiquity: Old Testament, New Testament
  2. Historical Theology: Origin to Late Medieval, Late Medieval to Early Modern
  3. Systematic Theology and Theological Ethics

The three parts of the comprehensive examination, each two hours in duration, are taken at the same examination session. Each part consists of six questions, of which students must answer three, including at least one from each section. All questions are based on the comprehensive examination bibliography and questions posted to the Department of Theology's website.

Specialization in General Studies

Students choosing the general studies option must opt for academic Plan B. They are required to complete the 18 credit hours of core course work as listed above, 12 credit hours of elective course work in any area or areas of specialization, and a non-credit master's essay.

Required Course Work18
Elective Course Work (any area or areas of specialization)12
Master's Essay0
Total Credit Hours30

Specialization in Theology and Society

Students choosing the theology and society specialization must be affiliated with the Trinity Fellows program and must opt for academic Plan B. They are required to complete the 18 credit hours of core course work as listed above, 12 credit hours of elective course work in any area or areas of specialization, and a non-credit master's essay. Up to 6 credit hours of non-theology course work completed in conjunction with the Trinity Fellows program may be applied to the student's elective course work requirement.

Required Course Work18
Elective Course Work (any area or areas of specialization, including approved non-theology courses)12
Master's Essay0
Total Credit Hours30

Master of Arts in Christian Doctrine (M.A.C.D.) Requirements

Students must complete 30 credit hours of course work and produce a comprehensive paper. The following program description summarizes those requirements. Additional information may be found in the Department of Theology's Policies and Procedures.

Course Requirements

Required Core courses:

THEO 6110Old Testament Method3
THEO 6120New Testament Method3
THEO 6210Origen to Late Medieval3
THEO 6220Late Medieval to Early Modern3
THEO 6320Christian Doctrine 13
THEO 6321Christian Doctrine 23
THEO 6410Introduction to Theological Ethics3
Elective course work9
Total Credit Hours30

In addition to the 21 credit hours of required course work, students must complete 9 credit hours of elective course work, choosing one 3-credit course in each of the department's three principal academic areas: Judaism and Christianity in antiquity, historical theology, and systematic theology/theological ethics.

Elective courses include:

All THEO courses numbered in the 5000 and 5100 ranges (Judaism and Christianity in Antiquity)
All THEO courses numbered in the 5200 range (Historical Theology)
All THEO courses numbered in the 5300, 5400 and 5500 ranges (Systematic Theology/Theological Ethics)
THEO 6130The Gospels (Judaism and Christianity in Antiquity)3
THEO 6310Introduction to Systematic Theology (Systematic Theology/Theological Ethics)3
THEO 6330Christian Spirituality (Systematic Theology/Theological Ethics)3
THEO 6415Catholic Social Encyclical Tradition (Systematic Theology/Theological Ethics)3

In certain circumstances and with the express permission of the M.A.C.D. program director, students may complete their elective requirements by completing the following doctoral-level courses:

All THEO courses numbered in the 8000, 8100, 8200, and 8300 ranges (Judaism and Christianity in Antiquity)
All THEO courses numbered in the 8400 range (Historical Theology)
All THEO courses numbered in the 8500 and 8600 ranges (Systematic Theology/Theological Ethics)

Comprehensive paper

Each student must write a comprehensive final paper presenting an original examination of a topic of interest to the student and employ one or more methods of theological inquiry. The paper should integrate lessons learned in the program and applying those lessons to the student's personal and/or professional experiences, or, alternatively, the student's personal and/or career ambitions.

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in Religious Studies Requirements

Specializations: Judaism and Christianity in Antiquity, Historical Theology, Systematic Theology, Theological Ethics, Theology and Society (includes Health Care Mission and Ethics)

Students must complete 60 credit hours of post-baccalaureate course work, up to 30 of which may be completed prior to their enrollment in the program, demonstrate proficiency in a classical language or languages relevant to their specializations, demonstrate proficiency in two modern languages other than English, pass a doctoral qualifying examination, complete 12 credit hours of dissertation research and produce and successfully defend a doctoral dissertation. The following program description summarizes those requirements. Additional information may be found in the Department of Theology's Policies and Procedures.

COURSE WORK REQUIREMENTS

Upon enrollment in the program, students chooses a specialization. The students' choice of specialization dictates the terms of the  course of study. The department's principal areas of specialization are as follows:

  • Judaism and Christianity in Antiquity (JUCA)
  • Historical Theology (HITH)
  • Systematic Theology (SYTH)
  • Theological Ethics (THET)

Students choosing one of these specializations must complete 36 credit hours of course work in an area of specialization and typically completes 12 credit hours of course work in each of the two areas not chosen as the specialization. Note that the systematic theology and theological ethics areas are counted as a one for the purpose of course work distribution​.

Students may choose from the following courses: 

All THEO courses numbered in the 8000, 8100, 8200, and 8300 ranges (JUCA)
All THEO courses numbered in the 8400 range (HITH)
All THEO courses numbered in the 8500 range (SYTH)
All THEO courses numbered in the 8600 range (THET)

The department also offers an interdisciplinary specialization with two program options:

  • Theology and Society (THSO)

Students choosing the theology and society specialization must complete at least 30 credit hours of course work in one of the Department of Theology's principal areas of specialization, at least 9 credit hours of course work in each of the department's other two principal areas of specialization, and 12 credit hours of graduate course work in one or more disciplines pertaining to their specific research agenda (e.g., economics, education, history, philosophy, political science or psychology).

  • Health Care Mission and Ethics

Students choosing the health care mission and ethics option must complete at least 30 credit hours of course work in one of the Department of Theology's principal areas of specialization, at least 9 credit hours in each of the department's other two principal areas of specialization, and 12 credit hours of graduate course work pertaining to healthcare. (e.g., NURS 6007 Ethics, Policy and Health Care Advocacy, NURS 6009 Organizational and Systems Leadership, HEAL 6841 Health Care Finance, HEAL 6846 Health Care Informatics, HEAL 6848 Health Care Policy, LAW 7156 Current Issues in Health Law, LAW 7181 Elder Law, LAW 7221 Health Law).

Students choosing the interdisciplinary specialization may be required to take additional course work beyond the program's 60-credit-hour minimum to certify their qualifications in both theology and the allied disciplines of their choosing.

FOREIGN LANGUAGE REQUIREMENTS

Students choosing the Judaism and Christianity in antiquity specialization must demonstrate proficiency in classical Hebrew and Greek. Students choosing the historical theology specialization must demonstrate proficiency in Latin, Greek or another classical language essential to their research agenda. Students choosing the systematic theology or theological ethics specialization or the health care mission and ethics interdisciplinary program option must demonstrate proficiency in Latin. Students choosing the theology and society interdisciplinary program option is not required to demonstrate proficiency in a classical language.

All students must demonstrate proficiency in German, French or another modern language or languages other than English essential to the students' research agenda. Students are expected to demonstrate proficiency in one modern foreign language by the end of the first year of enrollment in the program and in two modern foreign languages by the end of the second year. Students typically fulfill these requirements by earning a grade of B or above in course work or on a language examination administered by the Department of Languages, Literatures and Cultures.

DOCTORAL QUALIFYING EXAMINATION

Once students has fulfill all of the language requirements and no earlier than their final term completing course work, they are eligible to take the doctoral qualifying examination. The examination has two stages, namely the written examination and the oral examination. The written examination is in four parts, each three hours in duration, and is administered in two sessions, typically on consecutive days. Students complete two of the examination's parts during each session. The oral examination is administered following the administration of the written examination in a single session lasting approximately 90 minutes.

The doctoral qualifying examination is administered by a committee consisting of five of the department's full-time, tenured or tenure-track faculty members selected by the student and approved by the department's Graduate Committee. Students choosing the interdisciplinary specialization typically substitute one of the department's faculty committee members with a comparably credentialed faculty member in another department and/or institution. Each committee member examines the students on a topic or topics corresponding with their area of academic expertise. Students must earn the satisfactory evaluation of each of the five committee members to pass the examination. Students advances to doctoral candidacy once they pass the doctoral qualifying examination, completes their course work requirements, and fulfills all of their language requirements.

Doctoral Dissertation Credits

Upon advancing to doctoral candidacy, students must complete 12 credit hours of dissertation research. All dissertation credit hours must be completed before students schedule their dissertation defense.

Doctoral Dissertation

Students are encouraged to identify a dissertation topic and prospective director toward the end of the completion of the course work and/or while preparing for the doctoral qualifying examination. Students must choose a topic that falls within the scope of the department's common understanding of the discipline of Religious Studies and for which students can locate a member of the department's faculty possessing the competence and interest needed to serve as the dissertation's director. 

Once students have determined a topic of research and secured the agreement of a director, they submit a doctoral dissertation outline to the department's Graduate Committee. The outline identifies the dissertation's director and no fewer than three more of the department's full-time, tenured or tenure-track faculty members to serve on the dissertation's review board. Students choosing the interdisciplinary specialization typically substitute one of the department's faculty board members with a comparably credentialed faculty member in another department and/or institution.

Once the Graduate Committee approves the students' doctoral dissertation outline, inclusive of the director and review board, students produce the dissertation to the satisfaction of their director. Upon its completion and the concurrent recommendation of the director, the dissertation is subjected to the board's review during a public defense lasting approximately two hoursStudents must earn the satisfactory evaluation of each board member to secure the dissertation's approval.

Following the successful defense of the dissertation, students may be given a fixed amount of time to revise their work in light of the board's feedback. Students submit the final edition of the dissertation to the Graduate School in advance of their graduation.

Courses

THEO 5000. Digging the Bible: Archeology and Biblical Studies. 3 cr. hrs.

An exploration of the uses and abuses of archeology relative to the field of biblical studies. Case studies in a historical approach to the intersection of archeology and biblical theology.

THEO 5020. The Bible in the Jewish Community. 3 cr. hrs.

The uses of the Bible in Jewish life and practice, in synagogue and in private use. Haggadah and Halakah.

THEO 5030. Women in the Bible. 3 cr. hrs.

Status and roles of women in selected biblical texts. Social and historical background with emphasis on narrative technique and theological themes.

THEO 5190. Studies in Biblical Theology. 3 cr. hrs.

Significant topics in Old Testament, Intertestamental or New Testament literature.

THEO 5200. Theology in the Early Church. 3 cr. hrs.

Basic theological questions and developments during the era of the Church Fathers.

THEO 5210. History and Theology of the Christian East. 3 cr. hrs.

The Christian East from its origins, through the conversion of Constantine, to the present-day Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox Churches. Particular attention to the distinctive theological emphases of the East, as well as to the developments leading to the break in communion between Catholic (and Protestant) West and Orthodox East.

THEO 5220. St. Augustine: The Man and the Theologian. 3 cr. hrs.

A study of Augustine's life, writings and thought, with special attention to the Confessions, to his theology of the church and the sacraments, and to his teaching on grace and predestination, against the background of his early philosophical writings.

THEO 5230. Theology in the Middle Ages. 3 cr. hrs.

Basic theological questions and developments during the Middle Ages, from the Carolingians to the 14th century.

THEO 5240. Theology in the Reformation Era. 3 cr. hrs.

Basic theological questions and developments during the late Middle Ages and early Reformation. Also addresses current ecumenical issues.

THEO 5250. Martin Luther. 3 cr. hrs.

The thought and world of Luther, with emphasis on Luther in his Catholic context; Luther and the Bible, Augustine, the Radicals, the Pope; Luther's theology of faith and freedom; contextual, theological and ethical.

THEO 5260. Theology in America. 3 cr. hrs.

Basic theological questions and developments from Puritanism to the present.

THEO 5270. The Many Faces of U.S. Catholicism. 3 cr. hrs.

Investigates the development of diverse manifestations of U.S. Catholic life and thought. Explores how historical and contemporary experiences, including slavery, migration, sexism and other forms of historical exclusion, contribute to the shaping of theologies and practices that are uniquely American and distinctly Catholic.

THEO 5290. Studies in Historical Theology. 3 cr. hrs.

Significant figures and themes in the history of religious thought, examined in their historical context and contemporary significance. Topics and periods vary.

THEO 5300. The Question of God in a Secular Age. 3 cr. hrs.

Origins and varieties of contemporary atheism. The existence of God and Christian theistic interpretations.

THEO 5310. Theology of the Holy Spirit. 3 cr. hrs.

Study of the distinct mission and person of the Holy Spirit in the Trinitarian work of human salvation. Analysis of biblical, patristic, and conciliar sources; attention to modern theology and the role of experience.

THEO 5320. Jesus the Christ. 3 cr. hrs.

The identity of Jesus Christ and the nature of Christian salvation as attested to in the New Testament and Christian tradition. Historical Jesus and diversity of christologies in the New Testament. Humanity and divinity of Christ. The saving significance of Christ's life, death and resurrection.

THEO 5330. Theology of the Church. 3 cr. hrs.

The Church in light of the documents, events, and charism of Vatican II. Contemporary understandings of the Church and its mission in the modern world. Special attention to post-conciliar "communion ecclesiology" and the relation of the local to the universal Church.

THEO 5340. Sacraments and Christian Life. 3 cr. hrs.

Theological overview of the major sacramental enactments of the church's life in Christ. The witness of Scripture and Tradition, including the liturgy itself. Ethical and ecumenical dimensions.

THEO 5350. The Eucharist. 3 cr. hrs.

Biblical origins and historical evolution of the Eucharist in light of contemporary theology and ritual theory, with special focus on the Roman Rite Catholic post-Vatican II celebration.

THEO 5370. Protestant Thought and Practice. 3 cr. hrs.

Major perspectives within the broad spectrum of Protestantism. Examination of the thought of several Protestant theologians. A survey of the unity and diversity of several Protestant denominations and their respective forms of worship.

THEO 5390. Studies in Systematic Theology. 3 cr. hrs.

Significant movements and/or major figures in contemporary systematic theology. Their historical antecedents and cultural context. Specific topics to be specified in the Schedule of Classes.

THEO 5400. Christian Faith and Justice. 3 cr. hrs.

Classic and recent Christian understandings of justice as interpersonal and societal right-relations. Justice as constitutive aspect of the Gospel; love and justice; Christian responsibility in the face of injustice. Further issues, e.g. sexual and gender ethics, political and economic issues.

THEO 5405. Christian Theology in Global Contexts. 3 cr. hrs.

The reception of the Christian gospel in diverse cultures throughout the world. The challenge of inculturation and the requirements of the unity of Christian faith. The meaning of mission and evangelization outside the West. The encounter with indigenous religions.

THEO 5410. Family, Church, and Society. 3 cr. hrs.

The interaction of family, church, and society. Contemporary family patterns, their strengths and stresses; the teachings, reflection, and pastoral responses of the Church concerning marriage and family. Ecclesial and societal implications of family as "domestic church.".

THEO 5430. Religion and Science. 3 cr. hrs.

Theological analysis of the historical relationship between religion and the natural sciences; exploration of models for relating the two disciplines today; reflection on the theological implications of contemporary scientific discoveries and theories.

THEO 5440. Foundations of Ecological Ethics. 3 cr. hrs.

Exploration of religious foundations for ecological ethics, with a focus on the Catholic tradition and social teachings; application to contemporary ecological problems.

THEO 5450. Medical Ethics. 3 cr. hrs.

Health care practices under moral assessment from within the Christian tradition. Controversial topics facing medicine (issues of the beginning and end of life, assisted reproduction, etc.) as related to Christian moral principles.

THEO 5490. Studies in Moral Theology. 3 cr. hrs.

Selected issues in contemporary moral life; selected themes from classical and contemporary writings in moral theology and Christian ethics. Topics vary, as specified in the Schedule of Classes.

THEO 5500. Christ and World Religions: Theology of Interreligious Dialogue. 3 cr. hrs.

Global pluralism of religions considered from perspectives of Christian faith. Methods and case studies of theological dialogue with particular religious traditions, e.g. Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism.

THEO 5510. Survey of World Religions. 3 cr. hrs.

An overview of the major religious traditions of the world: Hinduism, Buddhism, religions of China and Japan, Judaism, Christianity and Islam.

THEO 5520. Jewish Thought and Practice. 3 cr. hrs.

Meaning of Jewish history. Philosophical and social understanding of the Jewish experience. Ruling ideas, myths, symbols, and rites. Partially funded by the Jewish Chautauqua Society.

THEO 5530. Islam: Faith and Practice. 3 cr. hrs.

Major trends of Islamic religious thought, practice, and worship. Readings from the Qur'an and other Islamic writings. Historical approach. Current issues and developments. Islam in the West.

THEO 5540. Hinduism, Yoga, and Buddhism. 3 cr. hrs.

Religious experience, cultic act, religious organization, theological formulation, as illustrated by two religions of India, Hinduism and Buddhism. Yoga as spiritual discipline. Historical approach. Readings from sacred writings.

THEO 6110. Old Testament Method. 3 cr. hrs.

Introduction to the history, literature, and religion of ancient Israel. History and methods of interpretation. Prereq: THEO-MA or THEO-MACD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 6120. New Testament Method. 3 cr. hrs.

Background, geography, text, language, versions, editions. Principal problems in individual books. Exegetical techniques. Hermeneutical principles. Prereq: THEO-MA or THEO-MACD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 6130. The Gospels. 3 cr. hrs.

Formation, structure, and styles of the four canonical Gospels. Topics to be studied include: their sources, literary relationships, depictions of Jesus, role of the Church, discipleship, and suffering. Each Gospel will be studied in terms of the communities that produced them and their relationship to other texts. Exegesis of selected texts. Prereq: THEO-MA or THEO-MACD student.

THEO 6210. Origen to Late Medieval. 3 cr. hrs.

A brief introduction to historiography and historical method with a more focused introduction to major theological issues and debates (e.g., scripture and tradition; trinity; Christology; grace and sacraments; faith and reason; church and state) and to some of the key contributions of major eastern and western theologians (e.g., Origen, Augustine, Pseudo-Dionysius, John of Damascus, Anselm, Abelard, Gregory Palamas, Aquinas, Bonaventure, Scotus). Prereq: THEO-MA or THEO-MACD stduent or cons. of dept. ch.; required for all master's candidates.

THEO 6220. Late Medieval to Early Modern. 3 cr. hrs.

A basic introduction to theological developments from 1350 to the end of the Enlightenment (1800). Examines major theological movements and the thought of major thinkers (e.g., Ockham, Biel, Erasmus, Luther, Calvin, Bellarmine, Bossuet, Pascal, Spener, Edwards, Lessing, Kant) within their social, historical, and philosophical contexts. Prereq: THEO-MA or THEO-MACD student or cons. of dept. ch.; required for all master's candidates.

THEO 6310. Introduction to Systematic Theology. 3 cr. hrs.

Relation of systematic theology to faith, revelation (the Bible, Church creeds and doctrines), and the Church. The role of biblical exegesis, historical scholarship, philosophy, natural and human sciences in systematic theology. Derivation of various categories, subdivisions, and methods of systematic theology. The challenges and prospects of interconfessional and interreligious dialogue for systematic theology. Prereq: THEO-MA student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 6320. Christian Doctrine 1. 3 cr. hrs.

A historical and theological introduction to the formation and development of the Christian doctrines of the Trinity, Christology, and Pneumatology. Focuses on the interrelationships of these doctrines. Prereq: THEO-MACD student.

THEO 6321. Christian Doctrine 2. 3 cr. hrs.

A historical and theological introduction to the Christian doctrines of Church, sacraments, and eschatology. Focuses on the interrelationships of these doctrines with one another and with those in Christian Doctrine 1. Prereq: THEO-MACD student.

THEO 6330. Christian Spirituality. 3 cr. hrs.

Explores the theological foundations of and key concepts, texts and figures in the field of Christian spirituality. Focuses on the relationship between theory and practice in historical and contemporary contexts. Prereq: THEO-MA or THEO-MACD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 6410. Introduction to Theological Ethics. 3 cr. hrs.

Systematic survey of the fundamental categories, concepts and norms used in moral theology to analyze human moral experience. The role of Scripture and tradition as foundational sources in moral theology. The church as the locus for Christian moral reflection. Pivotal issues in the historical development of moral theology. The relation of moral philosophy to moral theology. Required for master's core curriculum. Prereq: THEO-MA or THEO-MACD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 6415. Catholic Social Encyclical Tradition. 3 cr. hrs.

Explores the following principles of Catholic Social teaching: the dignity of persons in community and the common good; the duties of the state and the principle of subsidiarity; kinds of justice and their application in social, political and economic life; the relationship between labor and capital; Church-state relationships; war and peace; and environmental stewardship. The issues are traced through the documents of Vatican II and selected Apostolic Exhortations. Prereq: THEO-MA or THEO-MACD student or cons. of dept.

THEO 6995. Independent Study in Theology. 1-3 cr. hrs.

Prereq: Cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 6998. Professional Project in Theology. 0 cr. hrs.

SNC/UNC grade assessment. Prereq: Cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 6999. Master's Thesis. 1-6 cr. hrs.

S/U grade assessment. Prereq: Cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8010. Intensive Hebrew Grammar. 3 cr. hrs.

Introduction to Biblical Hebrew. Emphasis will be placed on grammar, verb syntax, and vocabulary acquisition. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8011. Advanced Hebrew. 3 cr. hrs.

Reading of selected narrative and poetic books. Advanced grammar. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8012. Aramaic Dialects. 3 cr. hrs.

Provides the student who already has a background in Biblical Hebrew with a survey of Aramaic dialects, ranging from Ancient Aramaic to Syriac. Includes biblical Aramaic and Qumran Aramaic. Emphasis on providing the student with the tools to use these dialects in other biblical courses. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8120. Sources of Pentateuchal Thought. 3 cr. hrs.

Detailed study of the first five books of the Old Testament. Exegesis of selected passages. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8121. Prophetic Books of Ancient Israel. 3 cr. hrs.

Key themes in the prophetic movement. Relation of the prophets to the cult, society, and history of ancient Israel. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8122. Psalms and Religion of Ancient Israel. 3 cr. hrs.

A study of the literary, theological, and historical dimensions of the book of Psalms. Relationship between the psalms and cultic life. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8123. Former Prophets: Historical Books. 3 cr. hrs.

Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings. The structure, sources, narrative technique, and theology of the Deuteronomistic corpus. Hebrew text used. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8124. Wisdom Books of Ancient Israel. 3 cr. hrs.

Study of the place of Wisdom Literature in the development of Hebrew thought. Exegesis of selected passages. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8125. Intertestamental Literature. 3 cr. hrs.

Study of the books of the Old Testament Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha. Other developments of the period. Exegesis of selected passages. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8126. Judaism in the Hellenistic Era. 3 cr. hrs.

Jewish history, institutions, movements, and writings of this period, including Qumran, as they pertain to biblical studies. Jewish interpretation of scripture; midrash; haggadah and halakah; targums; Hellenistic influences on Judaism in Palestine and the diaspora; other related topics. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8127. The Writings. 3 cr. hrs.

An investigation into some of the other books of the Hebrew Bible beyond Torah and Prophets. May include literary, theological, and historical elements of "The Five Scrolls," Daniel, Ezra-Nehemiah, I and II Chronicles. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8130. Qumran and the Dead Sea Scrolls. 3 cr. hrs.

Overview of the Dead Sea Scrolls and the Qumran community. Covers major texts, contexts and interpretive issues in Qumran research, as well as their application to contemporary critical scholarship on the Hebrew Scriptures, the New Testament, early Judaism and early Christianity. Prereq: Admitted to REST-Ph.D. program or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8150. Special Questions in Old Testament Studies. 3 cr. hrs.

Specialized research on topics or problems within and/or related to the Old Testament writings. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8210. Intensive Hellenistic Greek Grammar. 3 cr. hrs.

An introduction to the Greek of the Hellenistic era, including the New Testament. Emphasis on grammar, syntax, vocabulary acquisition and historical context and theology. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8211. Advanced Hellenistic Greek. 3 cr. hrs.

Advanced grammar; readings in texts from 300 B.C. to 300 A.D. Emphasis on the language of the New Testament as reflective of continuity and change in Greek vocabulary, morphology, syntax, style, and the historical context and theology of these texts. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8310. Hellenistic Backgrounds to the New Testament. 3 cr. hrs.

Introduction to various Graeco-Roman issues and movements which influenced the development of New Testament writings. Study of traditional religion, mystery cults, philosophical schools, astrology and magic, literary genres and tendencies, and other related topics. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8311. Apocalyptic Literature. 3 cr. hrs.

Origin and development of prophetic and apocalyptic eschatology. The social and religious phenomenon of apocalypticism. The genre "apocalypse" in Jewish and early Christian tradition. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8312. Formation of the Gospel Tradition. 3 cr. hrs.

Literary interrelationship of the four Gospels. Theories of Gospel priority and dependence. Development of oral and written traditions. Distinctive character of the Gospel form. Greek text used. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8313. Matthew. 3 cr. hrs.

Formation, structure, and style of the Gospel of Matthew. Redactional and literary analysis of the Gospel to reconstruct the theology and the situation which produced it. Exegesis of selected passages. Greek text used. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8314. Mark. 3 cr. hrs.

Formation, structure, and style of the Gospel of Mark. Redactional and literary analysis of the Gospel to reconstruct the theology and the situation which produced it. Exegesis of selected passages. Greek text used. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8315. Luke-Acts. 3 cr. hrs.

Formation, structure, and style of Luke-Acts. Redactional and literary analysis of these two volumes to reconstruct the theology and the situation which produced them. Questions of Christian origins. Exegesis of selected passages. Greek text used. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8316. The Johannine Tradition. 3 cr. hrs.

Formation, structure, and style of the Gospel of John. Source, redaction, and literary analysis to reconstruct the stages of formation and their corresponding theologies. Relation of the Johannine letters to the Gospel. Exegesis of selected passages. Greek text used. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8317. Letter to the Romans. 3 cr. hrs.

Background and purpose of this letter. Examination of important Pauline themes, issues, and methods of argumentation. Exegesis of selected passages. Greek text used. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8318. The Corinthian Correspondence. 3 cr. hrs.

Study of I and/or II Corinthians in the context of Paul's pastoral relationship to Corinth. Integrity, background and purpose of the letters. Examination of important themes, issues, and methods of argumentation. Exegesis of selected passages. Greek text used. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8319. Shorter Pauline Letters. 3 cr. hrs.

Study of one or more of the following letters: Galatians, Philippians, I and II Thessalonians, and Philemon. Background and purpose of these writings. Examination of important Pauline themes, issues, and methods of argumentation. Exegesis of selected passages. Greek text used. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8320. Colossians and Ephesians. 3 cr. hrs.

Authorship, milieu, and purpose of these letters. Their relationship to one another and to other Pauline traditions. Review of critical issues and examination of theological themes and methods of argumentation. Exegesis of selected passages. Greek text used. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8321. Later New Testament Writings. 3 cr. hrs.

Study of one or more of the following New Testament texts: I and II Timothy; Titus; Hebrews; James; I and II Peter; I, II, and III John; Jude; and Revelation 1-3. Background, purpose, and theology of these writings. Exegesis of key passages. Relationship of these works to selected non-canonical writings. Greek text used. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8350. Special Questions in New Testament Studies. 3 cr. hrs.

Specialized research on topics or problems within and/or related to the New Testament writings. Greek text used. Prereq: REST-PhD student or THEO 6120 and cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8410. Ecclesiastical Historiography. 3 cr. hrs.

The interpretation of the history of the Church and of doctrine as seen by ecclesiastical historians from Eusebius to Harnack; their characteristic approaches and concerns. Recent trends in historiography and historical theology. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8411. History of Christian Thought 1: The Age of the Fathers. 3 cr. hrs.

A study of the development of Christian beliefs and doctrines in the patristic age. The following themes are treated: the authority of Scripture and tradition; Father, Word, Spirit, and the divine Triad; the person of Jesus the Christ; sin, redemption and grace; the Church and the sacraments. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8412. History of Christian Thought 2: Byzantine Tradition. 3 cr. hrs.

Survey of Greek theology from Nicea (325 A.D.) to the fall of Constantinople (1453). Particular attention to the most important writers following the Council of Chalcedon, beginning with Dionysius Areopagita and concluding with Gregory Palamas and Nicholas Cabasilas. Focus on the abiding Greek preoccupation with salvation as deification and its contribution to the continuity of Eastern Christian thought. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8413. History of Christian Thought 3: The Middle Ages. 3 cr. hrs.

A study of the development of Christian theology from Augustine to Thomas Aquinas. Includes the following themes: the character and method of theology after Augustine; monastic theology; the early Eucharistic controversies; reason, logic, and the origins of Scholasticism; 12th century humanism and theology; Scholasticism; and Thomism. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8414. History of Christian Thought 4: The Later Middle Ages and the Reformation. 3 cr. hrs.

Theological pluralism of the 13th-15th centuries. Thomism and nominalism, mysticism and humanism, conciliarism, Augustinianism. Reform, questions of authority, faith, catholicity. Sixteenth century responses. Luther to Calvin, Muenster to Menno Simons, early Roman Catholic polemical theology to Trent. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8415. History of Christian Thought 5: The Modern Era. 3 cr. hrs.

A study of major developments in Christian life and thought in the 17th-19th centuries in Europe, with a focus on intellectual history. Jansenism and Cartesianism; the impact of Enlightenment thought. The Romantic revivals of theology in Schleiermacher and the Tubingen Schools. German Idealism and its debacle. Biblical criticism. Varieties of 19th century options in theology. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8416. History of Christian Thought 6: Theology in America. 3 cr. hrs.

An analysis of developments in American theology from Puritanism to the present. Examines representative theologians of Puritanism, revivalism, enlightenment, progressive orthodoxy, social gospel, modernism, Americanism, and neo-orthodoxy within the context of American political and social movements. Themes considered: the church, grace, religious liberty, church and state, voluntaryism, person of Jesus, tradition, adaptation. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8417. The Apostolic Fathers and the Apologists. 3 cr. hrs.

A study of the Christian writings of the 2nd century, especially Clement of Rome, Ignatius of Antioch, the Epistle of Barnabas, the Didache, the Greek apologists, and Irenaeus, with particular attention to their relation to the Old and New Testaments, the doctrine of the Logos, Church order, and the emerging understanding of orthodoxy and heresy. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.; may not be taken for credit by students who have taken the same course as THEO 8415.

THEO 8418. Clement, Origen and the Alexandrian Tradition. 3 cr. hrs.

Against the background of Clement's attempt to incorporate Greek modes of thought into Christianity, an extensive study of Origen as a biblical commentator and the first systematic theologian, with some consideration of the neoplatonic tradition in Christianity, Origen's influence on later theology, and the Origenist controversies. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.; may not be taken for credit by students who have taken the same course as THEO 8417.

THEO 8419. The Greek Fathers of the Fourth Century. 3 cr. hrs.

Reading and study of some of the writings of Athanasius, Basil the Great, Gregory of Nazianzus, Gregory of Nyssa and others, with attention given to the Trinitarian controversies of the 4th century, the councils of Nicea and Constantinople, and the rise and fall of Arianism. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.; may not be taken for credit by students who have taken the same course as THEO 8418.

THEO 8420. History and Theology of the New Testament Canon. 3 cr. hrs.

The Septuagint as the first Christian Bible; authority for religious truth in the Apostolic Fathers and the Apologists; evidence for the liturgical use of Christian writings; the apocryphal New Testament; the canon of four gospels; the collection of the Apostles' letters; lists of canonical books; the beginnings of exegesis; modern theological speculation on the canon. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8421. Augustine of Hippo. 3 cr. hrs.

An intensive study of Augustine's life, writings and thought. Topics include: the influence of neoplatonism on Augustine, the stages of his conversion, the implications of the Donatist controversy for his views on the Church and the sacraments, and the controversy with Pelagius on grace and predestination. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8422. Monastic Theology. 3 cr. hrs.

Proposes a reading of the classical "canon" of early monastic literature. Beginning with a few sessions devoted to sources, the course moves to the early Syrians, notably Aphrahat of Persia and Ephrem Syrus, and then to the better-known and enormously influential "Vita Antonii," the several "Vitae" of Pachomius, the "History of the Monks of Egypt," Basil the Great's "Longer and Shorter Rules," Gregory of Nyssa, Evagrius of Pontus, the "Macarian Homilies," such early 5th century works as Palladius of Hieropolis' "Lausiac History," John Casian's "Institutes" and "Conferences," Theodoret of Cyrrhus' "Historia religosa," and the "Sayings of the Desert Fathers." Concludes with an examination of Benedict of Nursia's "Life" (by Gregory the Great) and "Rule." Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8423. Theology in the Twelfth Century. 3 cr. hrs.

Survey of theology in monasteries and cathedral schools, from the Gregorian Reform to Alan of Lille, including; e.g., Anselm of Canterbury, Peter Abelard, Bernard of Clairvaux, the Victorines, Peter Lombard. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8424. The Theology of Thomas Aquinas. 3 cr. hrs.

The critical reading of the texts of Aquinas in developmental sequence with emphasis on the character of the Summa theologiae. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8425. The Theology of Bonaventure. 3 cr. hrs.

Readings and study of both the academic and the mystical writings of Bonaventure, with special emphasis on the Breviloquium. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8426. The Study of the Bible in the Middle Ages. 3 cr. hrs.

Medieval exegesis from the Carolingian renaissance to the 13th century, with special attention to the relationship between scripture commentaries and systematic theologies; the multiple senses of Scripture in theory and practice; authors include; e.g., Rupert of Deutz, Bernard of Clairvaux, the Victorines, Aquinas and his teachers. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8427. Late Medieval Augustinianism. 3 cr. hrs.

Revival of Augustinian thought. Wyclif, Hus to Bradwardine. Via Gregorii. Commentaries on St. Augustine. Anti-Pelagianism and Donatism. Mediation of Augustinian thought to subsequent periods. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8428. Interpretation of the Bible in the Renaissance and Reformation. 3 cr. hrs.

Hermeneutical developments from the Victorines. Sources and methods for interpreting historical exegesis. Humanist work on Scripture. The place of the Bible in theology. Luther as doctor of Scripture. Trent and Bible study. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8429. Erasmus. 3 cr. hrs.

Biography and developments of his thought. Study of Scripture and the classics. Commentaries on Scripture. Philosophia Christi. Changing attitudes toward Erasmus. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8430. Luther. 3 cr. hrs.

Developments of Luther's thought in relation to medieval theology. Influence of nominalism and mysticism on Luther. Origins of his hermeneutic and doctrine of justification. Importance of his theology of reformation, law/gospel, and man. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8431. Calvin. 3 cr. hrs.

Biography and development of his major writings. Systematic construction of the Institutes of the Christian Religion. Calvin on Scripture, sanctification and predestination, and early results in Calvinism. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8432. Council of Trent. 3 cr. hrs.

The positive contribution of Trent to the history of Christian thought. The "medieval" and "modern" character of the council. Trent's understanding of the reformers, and the question of "Counter-Reformation." Trent's position on Scripture and tradition, and its justification. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8433. Theological Thought of the Enlightenment and the Nineteenth Century. 3 cr. hrs.

Important theological developments, including movements and thinkers, in both the Catholic and Protestant traditions, in both Europe and America from the beginning of the Modern Era. Possible movements to be covered in this order: Deism, Rational Supernaturalism, Pietism, Romanticism, Speculative Idealism, French Catholic Thought (Traditionalism, Fideism), Oxford Movement, Tubingen School, Protestant Liberalism, Biblical Criticism and Darwinism, Ultramontanism and Neo-Thomism, Roman Catholic Thought and Modernism, Existentialism, and Atheism. Possible figures covered: Herbert of Cherbury, Tillotson, Locke, Toland, Tindal, Voltaire, Wolff, Semler, Reimarus, Lessing, Rousseau, Butler, Hume, Kant, Jacobi, Hamann, Herder, Coleridge, Schleiermacher, Busnell, Hegel, F. C. Baur, Biedermann, John and Edward Caird, Chateaubriand, Maistre, Lamennais, Bautain, Keble, Newman, Williams, Pusey, Drey, Mohler, Strauss, Feuerbach, Marx, Williams, Goodwin, Jowett, Darwin, Moore, Hodge, Abbott, Ritschl, Herrmann, Harnack, Rauschenbusch, Hodge, Warfield, Leo XIII, Mercier, Garrigou-Lagrange, Olle-Laprune, Blondel, Laberthonniere, Loisy, Le Roy, Tyrrell, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche. Not all significant movements and thinkers are covered in one term. Prereq: THEO 6210, THEO 6220, and THEO 6310, or their equiv.'s (i.e., the master's-level introductory courses), unless the student has passed out of this material on the M.A. Exam.

THEO 8434. Schleiermacher. 3 cr. hrs.

A close reading of the most important theological works of F.D.E. Schleiermacher (1768-1834), the "father of modern theology," with a view to understanding the basic concepts and historical development of Schleiermacher's thought within the context of post-Enlightenment European philosophical-theological ideas and movements. Prereq: THEO 6210 and THEO 6220, or their equiv.'s (i.e., the master's-level introductory courses on the history of theology), unless the student has passed out of this material on the M.A. Exam.

THEO 8435. Images of the Church through the Ages. 3 cr. hrs.

Covers the historical journey of the Christian church as it began and developed through its leading images/symbols/models. Prereq: THEO 6210, THEO 6220, and THEO 6310, or equiv.'s (i.e., the master's-level introductory courses), unless the student has passed out of this material on the M.A. Exam.

THEO 8436. The Roman Catholic Modernist Crisis. 3 cr. hrs.

Modernist controversies as the explosion of tensions long building between liberalism and orthodoxy, immanentist and extrinsecist religious thought, and tradition and critical history before and after 1900. An interpretation of the episodes in Roman Catholic theology (concerning Loisy, Blondel, von Hugel, Tyrrell) that formed the backdrop to the generation of Vatican II. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8437. Theology of Jonathan Edwards. 3 cr. hrs.

Examines Edwards' major theological works and analyzes his chief contributions to American theology. Particular focus on Edwards' understanding of God, original sin, the atonement, freedom, religious experience, true virtue, providence, and the millennium. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8438. Theology in the American Enlightenment. 3 cr. hrs.

Examines how the Enlightenment influenced Christian thought in the United States between 1700 and 1830, paying special attention to the issues raised by critical reason relative to the understanding of revelation, Christ, the supernatural, church and state, and Christians; e.g., the Unitarian W.E. Channing, the Princetonian Presbyterian C. Hodge, and the Catholic J. England. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8439. Theology and Romanticism in the United States. 3 cr. hrs.

Examines representative American Protestant and Catholic theologies that were most directly influenced by Romanticism; e.g., the Transcendentalism of R. W. Emerson and T. Parker, the Progressive Orthodoxy of H. Bushnell, the Mercersbury Theology of W. Nevin and P. Schaff, the Ontologism and moderate traditionalism of O. Brownson and I. Hecker, the Confessionalism of C. P. Krauth. Concentration upon the roles these theologians assigned to revelation, divine immanence in history, church and society, religious intuition, ecclesiastical and confessional authority. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8440. American Catholic Theology. 3 cr. hrs.

A historical examination of the theologies of American Catholics from John Carroll to John Courtney Murray. Analysis of major pastoral and systematic theologians (e.g., John England, Francis P. Kenrick, Orestes Brownson, Isaac Hecker, John Ireland, John A. Ryan, Gustave Weigel) within the context of American and European theological developments. Examination of American Catholic perceptions of Christology, grace, ecclesiology, church-state relations, social thought, the Bible, and modern sciences with a focus upon the relationship of religion and republicanism. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8441. The Social Gospel in American Theologies. 3 cr. hrs.

Examinations of the social thought of representative American Protestants and Catholics of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, concentrating upon the various perceptions of Christianity's relationship to the social and economic problems of the day. Analysis of the works of Washington Gladden, Richard Ely, Josiah Strong, Walter Rauschenbusch, Edward McGlynn, John A. Ryan, Paul H. Furfey, Dorothy Day, and Virgil Michel. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8442. Dionysius the Areopagite: Father of Mysticism?. 3 cr. hrs.

Intended to be primarily a close reading of (Pseudo-) Dionysius the Aeropagite (ca. 500), whose small corpus of works profoundly influenced subsequent Christian thought. Analyzes his background, his treatises and "epistles," noting his sources and parallels in preceding and contemporary Christian, pagan Neoplatonist, and Jewish mystical literature. Also traces out the Dionysian "trajectory" in selected later Eastern Christian writers. Prereq: THEO 6210 and cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8443. Symeon the New Theologian-Sources and Heirs. 3 cr. hrs.

Examines Symeon the New Theologian (949-1022), the most striking and attractive of the Byzantine spiritual writers, who too often is treated somewhat in isolation from the sources and currents which feed him. Begins with 5th century writers such as Diadochus of Photiki and Mark the Monk, runs through Dionysius, Maximus, and John of the Ladder in the 6th-7th centuries (possibly including the "Gaza School" and Palestinian monasticism), and continues through Symeon, to the Hesychasts of the 14th and 15th centuries, notably Gregory of Sinai and Gregory Palamas. Prereq: THEO 6210 and cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8444. PreNicene Ascetical and Mystical Literature. 3 cr. hrs.

A survey of Christian literature primarily from East of the Adriatic (at least as presently constituted), dealing with asceticism and the "visio Dei." Begins with Old Testament materials, looks at intertestamental literature including the Qumran Scrolls, and trajectories extending from the Second Temple to Rabbinic-era, Jewish mystical texts. Then moves to the New Testament, with special attention to Paul and Luke-Acts, and continues through the early martyrologies and New Testament apocrypha, in particular the apocryphal acts of the Apostles, and early Manichean materials. Concludes with the Alexandrians, Clement and Origen, and possibly Methodius of Olympus at the turn of the 4th century. Prereq: THEO 6210 and cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8445. The Development of Roman Catholic Theology from the Enlightenment to the Present. 3 cr. hrs.

Focuses on the historical development of Roman Catholic theology from the Enlightenment to the present. Treats movements such as French Romanticism, Gallicanism, Ultramontanism, Newmanism, Modernism, New Theology and Transcendental Thomism, Vatican II and post-Vatican II developments. Treats the thought of selected Roman Catholic theologians. In the 19th century: French theologians Chateaubriand, de Maistre, Lamennais, Bautain; the Tubingen theologians (e.g., Drey, Mohler); Newman and the Oxford Movement; the New Apologetics (e.g., Blondel, Laberthonniere); the "Modernists" (e.g., Loisy, Tyrrell). In the 20th century: New Theology and Transcendental Thomism (e.g., Rousselot, Marechal, de Lubac, Karl Rahner, Lonergan, Schillebeeckx); Liturgical Movement (e.g., Jungmann, Casel, Dix); Vatican II and Aggiornamento (e.g., Congar, Kung, Courtney Murray, Balthasar, Ratzinger); Political and Liberation Theologies (e.g., Metz, Gutierrez, Segundo, Leonard Boff); Feminist Theology (e.g., Schussler Fiorenza, Radford Ruether, Pilar Aquino). Prereq: THEO 6210, THEO 6220, and THEO 6310, or equiv.'s (i.e., the master's-level introductory courses), unless the student has passed out of this material on the M.A. Exam.

THEO 8446. History of Christian Theology in the Twentieth Century. 3 cr. hrs.

Possible schools/movements and figures to be covered: Eschatological school (J. Weiss, Schweitzer), Religionsgeschichtliche Schule (Troeltsch), American Empiricism and Naturalism (William James, D.C. Macinosh, Dewey, Wieman), Dialectical Theology (Barth, Brunner, Gogarten, Bonhoeffer), Christian Existentialism (Marcel, Tillich, Bultmann), Christian Realism (H.R. Niebuhr, Reinhold Niebuhr), the Nouvelle Theologie and Transcendental Thomism (Rousselot, Marechal, de Lubac, K. Rahner, Lonergan, Schillebeeckx), Vatican II and renewed Roman Catholic Theology (Congar, John XXIII, Kung, John Courtney Murray, Balthasar, Ratzinger), Political Theology and Liberation Theologies (Metz, Moltmann, Gutierrez, Segundo, L. Boff, Sobrino). Not all of these movements and figures are covered in one term. Prereq: THEO 6210, THEO 6220, and THEO 6310, or equiv.'s (i.e., the master's-level introductory courses), unless the student has passed out of this material on the M.A. Exam.

THEO 8450. Special Questions in the History of Christian Thought:. 3 cr. hrs.

Specialized research in one area or problem in the history of Christian thought. Specific topic(s) announced. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8510. Christian Anthropology. 3 cr. hrs.

Different concepts of anthropology today. The central interest in anthropology in different fields, including philosophy and theology, in the last 50 years. The relationship between anthropology, theology, Christology. Human existence according to the Old and New Testaments. The realities of history, world, and freedom as related to meaning in human existence. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8511. Atheism and Theism. 3 cr. hrs.

Exploration of the basic theistic and atheistic options regarding the ultimate meaning and value of human life. Socio-cultural and religious roots of these options. Criteria of truth for determining validity. Examination of representative writings, classical and modern, which discuss these options. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8512. God in Contemporary Theology. 3 cr. hrs.

Nineteenth and 20th century roots (philosophical, social, and religious) of present understandings of God. Classical and contemporary discussion of the nature and validity of theistic language. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8513. The Structure of Religious Experience. 3 cr. hrs.

Analysis of the structure of religious experience and related phenomena as explored through a variety of perspectives, such as philosophy, sociology, psychology, and theology. The nature and function of religion in human life in relation to the individual and social development of the human person. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8514. Hermeneutic Theory and Theological Method. 3 cr. hrs.

Nineteenth century hermeneutical discussion. Contemporary hermeneutical inquiries and their methodological implications for theology. Phenomenology and hermeneutical theory. Bultmannian and post-Bultmannian developments. Hermeneutics and the critique of ideologies. Points of contact between hermeneutics and linguistic analysis. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8515. Philosophy as Source and Resource for Theology. 3 cr. hrs.

Critical examination of philosophical texts which have played an important role in framing theological questions and discussions; of representative theological texts for how philosophical issues and presuppositions bear on their interpretation; of representative accounts (historical and contemporary) of the relationship between theology and philosophy. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8516. The Trinity. 3 cr. hrs.

Historical and systematic presentation of the doctrine of the Trinity. The development of this doctrine in early Christian history. The notions of substance, person, procession, relation, and communion as they occur in patristic tradition and in later Scholastic theology. Other approaches to this doctrine in the light of contemporary philosophy and theology. Role of this doctrine in contemporary Christian experience. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8517. Christology. 3 cr. hrs.

Historical and systematic presentation of the doctrine of the Incarnation. Christ, the Mediator between God and humanity, as the fullness of all revelation. Christology in the New Testament. The development of the doctrine of the Incarnation in the Christian church with special attention given to the councils of Ephesus and Chalcedon, Scholastic theology, and contemporary approaches to the mystery of Jesus. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8518. Soteriology. 3 cr. hrs.

Specific redemptive function of Jesus Christ and then of the Christian community, the sacraments and the world in which one lives. Grace and human development. Salvation as a personal and societal reality; redemption of the social order. Salvation of the nonbeliever, in particular the relationship between salvation and revelation. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8519. Ecclesiology. 3 cr. hrs.

Biblical understanding of the Christian community. Development of the institutional church through history. Current theological models of the church. Current discussion of the mission, functions, and structures of the church in the world today. The relation of the Christian churches to one another. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8520. Theology of Christian Liturgy. 3 cr. hrs.

A systematic study of the Church at prayer in Trinitarian and ecumenical perspectives. The Church's faith in God's saving action through its own ritual self-offering seen in light of human sciences, phenomenology and Christian doctrine. Liturgy examined as symbolic communication, as actualization of Christian community, and in its relationship to the rest of Christian life and theology. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8521. Christian Eschatology. 3 cr. hrs.

Analysis of Biblical and historical forms of Christian eschatology. Comparison of Christian perspectives with cyclic approaches to history and apocalyptic approaches to the end of history. The centrality of eternal life to the Christian message of the Kingdom of God. Resurrection as the principal locus of Christian expectations. Prereq: REST-Phd student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8522. Major Figures in Modern Theology. 3 cr. hrs.

Intensive examination of the writings of a thinker who has had a significant impact on theology within the last hundred years. Focuses on the primary texts of a particular theologian or school of thought. Also assesses their contribution to theology and the life of the Church and examines critical evaluations. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8523. Doctrinal Themes in Contemporary Protestant Systematic Theology. 3 cr. hrs.

Analysis and evaluation of important contemporary Protestant systematic theologians in terms of a single theme or related set of themes to be chosen by the instructor. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8524. Doctrinal Themes in Contemporary Roman Catholic Systematic Theology. 3 cr. hrs.

Analysis and evaluation of important contemporary Roman Catholic systematic theologians in terms of a single theme or related set of themes to be chosen by the instructor. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8525. Theological Method: Interdisciplinary Implications. 3 cr. hrs.

Exploration of methodological interrelations between theology and other academic disciplines in terms of a single theme or related set of themes to be chosen by the instructor. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8526. Fundamental Themes in the Theology of Bernard Lonergan. 3 cr. hrs.

Study of major texts of Bernard Lonergan. Themes vary: grace, Trinity, Christology, method. Also considers developments by other authors. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8527. Fundamental Themes in the Theology of Karl Rahner. 3 cr. hrs.

Intensive examination of major themes and texts in Karl Rahner's writings. Focuses on the primary texts, assesses their contribution to theology and the life of the Church and examines critical evaluations. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8528. Theology of Karl Barth. 3 cr. hrs.

An examination of Karl Barth's major texts, primarily, but not exclusively, his Church Dogmatics. Themes may include his Christology, method, moral theology and/or political theology. An examination of his relation to those who came before him, those against whom he reacted, as well as those who developed his thought in the 20th and 21st century. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8529. Nouvelle Theologie. 3 cr. hrs.

A study of the theological movement of the 20th century known as "la nouvelle théologie" or "ressourcement" that reacted to neo-scholasticism and sought to reunify theology through a reappropriation of the sources - the liturgy, Scriptures, and the Early Church Fathers. Representative figures include Henri de Lubac, Jean Daniélou, Henri Bouillard, Yves Congar, Louis Bouyer, Marie-Dominique Chenu, and Hans Urs von Balthasar. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8530. Theology of the Holy Spirit. 3 cr. hrs.

An examination of the biblical, historical and systematic aspects of pneumatology. Attention given to the Holy Spirit and the doctrine of the Trinity with consideration of the ecumenical implications of the Filioque, the Spirit in creation and redemption, the mission of the Holy Spirit relative to that of the Son, and the importance of pneumatology for the entire spectrum of Christian doctrine. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8531. Theology of Grace. 3 cr. hrs.

An examination of the doctrine of grace in its historical developments and in contemporary systematic theology. Attention given to the following: nature and grace, distinctions in the types and modalities of grace, grace and human freedom/predestination, justification and sanctification, grace in the church and the world. Also includes consideration of ecumenical convergences and/or divergences (Catholic and Protestant, Eastern and Western Churches). Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8532. Ecumenism. 3 cr. hrs.

A study of ecumenism, the efforts of the Christian churches to restore unity, ecumenical principles, the nature, goal and reception of dialogues, major Catholic encyclicals and directives on ecumenism, and significant recent ecumenical agreements between churches. An assessment of the points of ecumenical convergence and remaining differences on select doctrinal topics involving the Catholic Church. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8533. Christians and Muslims in Dialogue. 3 cr. hrs.

A survey of the efforts made to advance Muslim-Christian relations. An examination of joint declarations issued by formal dialogues as well as select individual contributions of Muslim and Christian scholars. Primary attention to those dialogues sponsored by the sub-unit on Dialogue with Peoples of Living Faiths of the World Council of Churches, and the Pontifical Council of Interreligious Dialogue. Includes dialogues co-sponsored and/or organized by Muslim organizations. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8534. Fundamental Theology. 3 cr. hrs.

A historical and systematic study of the fundamentals of theology: faith, revelation, tradition, and Church. Attention given to: faith as the response to revelation, the connection between faith and reason, revelation as God's self-communication, the relationship between scripture and tradition, and the role of the magisterium in preserving and interpreting sacred scripture and tradition. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8535. Public Theology in Postmodern Context. 3 cr. hrs.

The interpretation and application of the gospel to a given cultural context in the light of Scripture and Tradition. Not identical with the normative reflections of social ethics nor assuming the narratives of liberation and political theology, public theology focuses on public issues for the sake of the churches and on Christian meanings for the sake of the public square and the common good. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8536. Theology of Hans Urs von Balthasar. 3 cr. hrs.

Study of the major texts of Hans Urs von Balthasar, with special attention given to his trilogy. Possible themes include: Balthasar's elucidation of beauty as essential to theological discourse, Balthasar's efforts to reunite theology and spirituality through the fundamental connection between holiness and the theological enterprise, and Balthasar's Christological and Trinitarian theological method. A consideration of Balthasar's contribution to theology today. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8537. Theology of Jürgen Moltmann. 3 cr. hrs.

An examination of the theology of Jürgen Moltmann, both in its development and in its major themes. An emphasis on the close connection between theology and practice in Moltmann and the way his work represents a specific understanding of the task of theology. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8538. African Christianity. 3 cr. hrs.

An introduction to the key components, characteristics, and features of Christian theologizing in Africa. Further studies other relevant aspects of African theology, including religion and politics, comparative and applied ethics, the places of other African religions (especially traditional religions), and the contributions of African Christianity to global Christianity. Prereq: Admitted to REST-Ph.D. program or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8539. World Christianity. 3 cr. hrs.

An introduction to Christianity in the contemporary global context. Addresses the dynamism of Christianity’s ongoing expansion, commonalities and differences in its expression, and the impact of its disparate contexts and situations on the mutual influence between Christianity and its neighboring world religions and cultures. Prereq: Admitted to REST-Ph.D. program or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8540. Interfacing Theology and the Natural Sciences. 3 cr. hrs.

Ways in which theology and the natural sciences (e.g., physics, biology, and geology) have been related historically provide the perspective from which to examine current efforts to reflect on God, the world and humanity in a scientific age. Basic scientific facts and established theories inform theological discourse, and scientists are consulted for more in-depth understanding. Methods for teaching constructive relationship of the disciplines are explored and demonstrated by students. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8550. Special Questions in Systematic Theology. 3 cr. hrs.

Specialized research in one area or problem in systematic theology. Specific topic(s) announced. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8610. Moral Theology: The Catholic Tradition. 3 cr. hrs.

General outlines of the development and exposition of Catholic moral theology through an examination of historical studies of Christian Ethics written in the 20th century and of selected original texts. Moral teaching in early Christianity; development of systems of moral teaching; the history of casuistry; moral theology as a separate theological discipline; the understanding of the love commandment as found in different periods. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8611. The Protestant Tradition in Christian Ethics. 3 cr. hrs.

Study of selected writings of the Reformers on ethical subjects and of selected ethical writings from important Protestant schools of theology. Representatives of sectarian Protestant thought on ethical topics. Contemporary developments in Christian ethics found in the writings of outstanding Protestant thinkers in this century. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8612. Basic Issues in Christian Social Ethics. 3 cr. hrs.

Social teaching of the Christian churches. A systematic treatment of issues such as the relation between love and justice. The teachings of the Christian churches on matters such as war and peace; the rights and duties of states and citizens; the rights, duties, and obligations of members of a family; the rights, duties, and obligations of parents with respect to their children. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8613. Method in Theological Ethics. 3 cr. hrs.

Exploration of contemporary developments in methodological approaches to theological ethics. Particular attention to the theological nature of methodology as well as the interrelationship between other academic disciplines and the formation of method in theological ethics. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8614. Health Care Ethics. 3 cr. hrs.

Exploration of theological perspectives on medicine. Particular attention to thinking on health care within the Catholic tradition, as well as developments across the Christian tradition. Emphasis on theological methodology as well as engagement with select ethical issues in medicine. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8615. Body, Gender and Sexuality. 3 cr. hrs.

Analysis of how the human person's being a body directs our thinking in Christian theology. Human bodies as essential to what humans are, as both a possible limit on humans and an occasion of transcendence. The body as a source of thinking about persons and how they should act. The nature of sexual differentiation and of gender and implications for Christian anthropology and ethics. Human sexuality and its influence on individuals and communities. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8616. Theology and Economics. 3 cr. hrs.

A theological evaluation of economic theories and practices, particularly as they bear on the rise and ascendancy of the global market. Includes a history of economic thought with particular attention to moral theory. The tradition of economic thought within Christian theology. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8617. Catholic Social Thought. 3 cr. hrs.

A comprehensive examination of the engagement of Catholic faith with the public square. Detailed analysis of fundamental themes within the Catholic Social Teaching tradition through a study of the documents of the papal encyclical tradition, social thought originating from and upon the U.S. context, and the various interpretations of the Catholic Social Teaching tradition. Consideration of Catholic socio-ethical engagement with emerging concerns in public discourse. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8618. Liberation Ethics and the Option for the Poor. 3 cr. hrs.

An exploration of the ethical dimensions of liberationist theological reflection, addressing the contributions and challenges to Christian moral discourse, analysis, and reflection, which emerge from the theologies of liberation and their stance of solidarity with the victims of injustice. Attention given to both the commonality and diversity present in this theological movement. Consideration of the implications of the option for the poor for ethical reflection and action. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8619. Theology, Technology and Ethics. 3 cr. hrs.

Provides an historical overview of theological discourse on technology, considers effects of current technologies (e.g., biotechnology, social communications, artificial intelligence, energy and transportation), addresses ethical principles pertaining to their research, development, deployment and use from the perspective of Catholic and other Christian traditions, and explores and demonstrates effective methods for teaching this interdisciplinary subject. May include the views of other world religions Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept ch.

THEO 8620. Theology of Creation and Ethics. 3 cr. hrs.

Explores how the theological traditions of Christianity, Judaism and Islam recognize as moral problems the loss of biological diversity, degradation of ecological systems and threats to the biosphere caused by human actions. Critically examines contemporary theological efforts (e.g., reconstructionist and eco-feminist) to address these problems. Develops effective approaches to teaching at the undergraduate level. The traditions and perspectives of other world religions (e.g., Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism) may be included. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8621. Virtue Ethics. 3 cr. hrs.

Covers a range of topics in contemporary reappropriations of virtue ethics, with brief historical background. Includes fundamental virtue theory (Aristotle, Aquinas, MacIntyre’s After Virtue); contemporary contributions to virtue approaches (e.g., biblical virtue ethics, virtue and limits to moral agency) and applied virtue ethics. Both Protestant and Catholic approaches are treated at length. Prereq: Admitted to REST-Ph.D. program or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8622. Freedom, Sin and Conscience. 3 cr. hrs.

Explores the Christian understanding of the role of freedom in the moral life, paying particular attention to the role of sin in restricting freedom. Examines the theology of conscience and its primacy in theological ethics. Covers controversies emerging from the practical interaction of freedom, sin, and conscience, including the dangers of erroneous conscience, the prospects of collective conscience and the notion of social/structural sin. Prereq: Admitted to REST-Ph.D. program or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8650. Special Questions in Moral Theology. 3 cr. hrs.

Specialized research in one area or problem in moral theology. Specific topic(s)announced. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8710. Special Questions in Interdisciplinary Studies. 3 cr. hrs.

Specialized research in one area or problem in interdisciplinary studies. Specific topic(s) announced. Prereq: REST-PhD student or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8711. Teaching Theology at the College Level. 0 cr. hrs.

Explores effective means of teaching theology and religion in a liberal arts college setting. Addresses pedagogical techniques, learning styles, course design and assessment. Provides opportunities for new instructors to develop their communication and course management skills and to receive feedback from their students and faculty mentors. S/U grade assessment. Prereq: Admitted to REST-Ph.D. program or cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 8995. Independent Study in Theology. 1-3 cr. hrs.

Prereq: Cons. of dept. ch.; cons. of graduate prog. dir.

THEO 8999. Doctoral Dissertation. 1-12 cr. hrs.

S/U grade assessment. Prereq: Cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 9970. Graduate Standing Continuation: Less than Half-Time. 0 cr. hrs.

Fee. SNC/UNC grade assessment. Prereq: Cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 9974. Graduate Fellowship: Full-Time. 0 cr. hrs.

Fee. SNC/UNC grade assessment. Prereq: Cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 9975. Graduate Assistant Teaching: Full-Time. 0 cr. hrs.

Fee. SNC/UNC grade assessment. Prereq: Cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 9976. Graduate Assistant Research: Full-Time. 0 cr. hrs.

Fee. SNC/UNC grade assessment. Prereq: Cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 9984. Master's Comprehensive Examination Preparation: Less than Half-Time. 0 cr. hrs.

Fee. SNC/UNC grade assessment. Prereq: Cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 9985. Master's Comprehensive Examination Preparation: Half-Time. 0 cr. hrs.

Fee. SNC/UNC grade assessment. Prereq: Cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 9986. Master's Comprehensive Examination Preparation: Full-Time. 0 cr. hrs.

Fee. SNC/UNC grade assessment. Prereq: Cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 9987. Doctoral Comprehensive Examination Preparation: Less than Half-Time. 0 cr. hrs.

Fee. SNC/UNC grade assessment. Prereq: Cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 9988. Doctoral Comprehensive Examination Preparation: Half-Time. 0 cr. hrs.

Fee. SNC/UNC grade assessment. Prereq: Cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 9989. Doctoral Comprehensive Examination Preparation: Full-Time. 0 cr. hrs.

Fee. SNC/UNC grade assessment. Prereq: Cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 9991. Professional Project Continuation: Less than Half-Time. 0 cr. hrs.

Fee. SNC/UNC grade assessment. Prereq: Cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 9992. Professional Project Continuation: Half-Time. 0 cr. hrs.

Fee. SNC/UNC grade assessment. Prereq: Cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 9993. Professional Project Continuation: Full-Time. 0 cr. hrs.

Fee. SNC/UNC grade assessment. Prereq: Cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 9994. Master's Thesis Continuation: Less than Half-Time. 0 cr. hrs.

Fee. SNC/UNC grade assessment. Prereq: Cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 9995. Master's Thesis Continuation: Half-Time. 0 cr. hrs.

Fee. SNC/UNC grade assessment. Prereq: Cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 9996. Master's Thesis Continuation: Full-Time. 0 cr. hrs.

Fee. SNC/UNC grade assessment. Prereq: Cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 9997. Doctoral Dissertation Continuation: Less than Half-Time. 0 cr. hrs.

Fee. SNC/UNC grade assessment. Prereq: Cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 9998. Doctoral Dissertation Continuation: Half-Time. 0 cr. hrs.

Fee. SNC/UNC grade assessment. Prereq: Cons. of dept. ch.

THEO 9999. Doctoral Dissertation Continuation: Full-Time. 0 cr. hrs.

Fee. SNC/UNC grade assessment. Prereq: Cons. of dept. ch.