This major is open only to students enrolled in the Professional Studies Program.

A major in Leadership and Organizations, specifically designed for working professionals, shapes students to be dynamic leaders in their organizations with a commitment to organizational effectiveness. Participants are equipped with 21st Century hard and soft leadership skills to function effectively within organizations.

The hard skills of leadership in organizations include:

  • administration of the organization’s development and change
  • human resources
  • budget and finance
  • monitoring and assessing the business environment to predict adjustments to the business plan
  • maintaining and growing the bottom line

The soft skills of leadership in organizations include:

  • self-awareness
  • critical thinking
  • verbal and written communication skills
  • ethical decision-making
  • functioning within team
  • cultural competency as a leadership resource

Courses are taught by leader-practitioners through a curriculum based on current theories and best practice research applied to real-time work place tasks and responsibilities. Many who have graduated with this degree have been promoted to leadership positions, have discovered career paths for themselves, and/or have gone on to pursue an advanced degree.

Admission Requirements

Moratorium on Admissions for New Students

All students, freshman or transfer students (advanced standing), applying to the Undergraduate Professional Studies Program must submit a completed application, admissions essay, official transcripts from a high school or institution granting GED and, if appropriate, official transcripts from all post-secondary institutions. An applicant’s entire academic performance will be evaluated in making an admissions decision.

If an applicant was enrolled or registered at another institution since graduating from high school, official transcripts from such schools must be sent electronically via a secured third party method that has been verified by the sending institution or via U.S. Postal Service to the Undergraduate Professional Studies Program, Sensenbrenner Hall, Room 004, P.O. Box 1881, Milwaukee, WI 53201-1881. Generally, a minimum average of 2.000 (on a 4.000 scale) in college work is needed for consideration.

Non-degree applicants to the Undergraduate Professional Studies Program should refer to the Admission and Readmission section of this bulletin.

International applicants should contact the Office of International Education.

Acceleration Opportunities

Marquette recognizes that adults have knowledge from personal and professional experiences that enrich their college experience significantly. Academic advisers evaluate each student’s background to design a personalized plan for completing the degree. Students have a variety of ways to apply credit toward their degree:

College Level Examination Program (CLEP) Tests

Degree credits may be earned for certain college courses through the College Level Examination Program (CLEP). Individuals who have acquired relevant knowledge outside the college classroom are encouraged to take the appropriate CLEP test(s). A maximum of 30 credits earned through CLEP examinations may be applied to a Marquette degree. Credit is granted for approved subject examinations only. Students should consult the university Admission and Readmission section of this bulletin for a listing of approved exams.

Marquette Credit by Examination

In recognition that students may possess mastery of the content of a particular course which they have not registered, they can petition the college office to establish a testing procedure whereby the student can demonstrate his/her knowledge. Refer to the university Academic Regulations section of this bulletin.

Transfer Credits

The Undergraduate Professional Studies Program accepts credit from both two and four year educational institutional in accordance with the university Transfer Credit Policy. Credits are accepted on the basis of their relevance to the requirements of the program and grade earned is a C or better. Once enrolled as a student in the Undergraduate Professional Studies Program prior approval is required for course work completed at other accredited institutions. Contact the college admissions/records coordinator with any questions or concerns regarding transfer credits.

Attendance and Withdrawal Grades

Student attendance in each class session is deemed necessary for the successful completion of the course. The Undergraduate Professional Studies Program acknowledges that individual circumstances may prevent a student from attending a particular class period. Whenever possible, an absence should be prearranged with the instructor. Students are responsible for all materials covered and announcements made during his/her absence. It should be noted that the university does not differentiate between excused and unexcused absences. Tardiness and leaving early from class affects student performance. Students’ grades and/or standing in classes may be adjusted accordingly.

WA grade: Multiple absences may compromise the integrity of the learning experience.Therefore, depending on the content missed, students with two absences from an 8-week face-to-face/blended format course and three absences from 12-week face-to-face/blended format course may, at the discretion of the instructor, be withdrawn from the course with a grade of WA. For entire online courses, participation means being an active contributor and responder in a timely basis to fellow students and the instructor as set forth by discussion guidelines in each course. When students fail to participate in two assigned discussions or activities within the time parameters established, the instructor may withdraw these students from the online course with a grade of WA. In all cases of excessive absences, the Undergraduate Professional Studies Program reserves the right to automatically withdraw all students who have three absences in an 8-week face-to-face/blended format course and four absences in a 12-week face-to-face/blended format course with a WA grade.  

W grade: This grade is assigned when a withdrawal from a course or the entire semester is initiated by students, within the timelines, as outlined in the Academic Calendar. For W grades, the Bursar tuition adjustments apply.

UW grade: This grade is initiated by the college when students register for a course, never attend, and fail to officially withdraw. When students do not attend the first three weeks of class and fail to officially withdraw, a UW grade is issued. Likewise, the Bursar tuition adjustments apply at the time of the withdrawal. 

Note: All withdrawal grades appear as a permanent grade on the official transcript and may impact degree progress and financial aid. In addition, the university policy regarding the responsibility for any tuition owed for all classes, whether withdrawn or not, applies.

In order to administer this policy effectively, each instructor takes attendance at every face-to-face, blended or online learning class. The Undergraduate Professional Studies Program provides sign-in attendance sheets for each class, and it is the students’ responsibility to sign in or they are counted as absent.

The Undergraduate Professional Studies Program advising staff contacts new students during their first term of enrollment if the sign-in attendance sheets reflect an absence. The attendance policy is explained, as well as ramifications of additional absences. After students’ first term of enrollment, students are responsible for full familiarity with the program’s attendance policy and all ramifications of absences.

All students enrolled in courses offered by the Undergraduate Professional Studies Program are expected to adhere to the program’s attendance policy. While attendance is mandatory in Undergraduate Professional Studies courses, all other aspects of the University Attendance Policy apply.

Incomplete Grades

Students in the Undergraduate Professional Studies Program and those students not in the program who take Undergraduate Professional Studies 8-week classes who do not complete course assignments, tests, quizzes, presentations, etc., due to a circumstance beyond their control, may make arrangements for an incomplete grade. This arrangement must be made prior to the last day of the session in which the course is offered. If the missing course work is not completed and submitted prior to the agreed upon date or the sixth week of the Undergraduate Professional Studies Program session that immediately follows the session in which the grade was earned, including summer, the incomplete grade will automatically be changed to a failing grade. Should students need an extension to remove an incomplete grade because of inability to complete the missing assignments due to circumstances beyond their control, students must make an arrangement with the instructor of the course well in advance of the deadline and the instructor must communicate this extension to the associate dean, prior to that same deadline. The granting of the extension is not guaranteed and is at the discretion of the instructor. Additional information regarding incomplete grades is available in the Undergraduate Professional Studies program student handbook.

Preparedness for 8-week accelerated courses 

For students to be successful in 8-week accelerated courses, it is incumbent upon the students to be as prepared as possible to begin the 8-week course. Being prepared includes but is not limited to purchasing the required textbook, reviewing the course syllabus and logging into the corresponding course D2L site.

Students enrolled in the Undergraduate Professional Studies Program complete the requisite 36 credit hours in the nine knowledge areas plus an additional 6-15 credits as follows:

University Common Core and additional Curriculum Requirements

Candidates for the baccalaureate degree must complete a minimum of 120 credit hours including the following requirements:

Area Credit Hours
University Core of Common Studies36
Undergraduate Professional Studies Program Curriculum6-15
Major33
Cognate3
Electives33-42

University Core of Common Studies (UCCS)

Examining the World:

  • 6 credits Rhetoric (R)
  • 3 credits Mathematical Reasoning (MR)

Engaging the World:

  • 3 credits Diverse Cultures (DC)
  • 3 credits Histories of Cultures and Societies (HCS)
  • 3 credits Individual and Social Behavior (ISB)
  • 3 credits Literature/Performing Arts (LPA)
  • 3 credits Science and Nature (SN)

Evaluating the World:

  • 6 credits Human Nature and Ethics (HNE)
  • 6 credits Theology (T)

Note: Consult the Core of Common Studies website for an updated list of approved core courses.

The Undergraduate Professional Studies Program offers the following courses in the eight-week format to complete University Core of Common Studies. 

Rhetoric (R) (6 credit hours)

All students must complete six credit hours of coursework in the Rhetoric knowledge area. The specific courses that all Undergraduate Professional Studies Program students need to complete this requirement are:

ENGL 1001Rhetoric and Composition 1 *3
ENGL 1002Rhetoric and Composition 2 *3
History of Cultures and Societies (HCS) (3 credit hours)

All students must complete three credit hours of coursework in the History of Cultures and Societies knowledge area. Other courses may also fulfill the 3 credit hour history requirement; however, these options are not offered through the eight-week format. Generally students in the Undergraduate Professional Studies Program complete the History of Cultures and Societies requirement with the following history courses that are offered in the eight-week format.

HIST 1001Growth of Western Civilization to 1715 *3
HIST 1002Growth of Western Civilization since 1715 *3
Literature/Performing Arts (LPA) (3 credit hours)

All students must complete three credit hours of coursework in the Literature/Performing Arts knowledge area. Other courses may also fulfill the 3 credit hour literature and performing arts requirement; however, these options are not offered through the eight-week format. Generally students in the Undergraduate Professional Studies Program complete the Literature/Performing Arts requirement with the following literature courses that are offered in the eight-week format.

ENGL 2000Literature, History, and Culture *3
ENGL 2010Literature and Genre *3
Mathematical Reasoning (MR) (3 credit hours)

All students must complete three credit hours of coursework in the Mathematical Reasoning knowledge area. Other course may fulfill the 3 credit hour mathematical reasoning requirement; however, this option is offered through the eight-week format.

PRST 2140Research and Statistical Methods *3
Science and Nature (SN) (3 credit hours)

All students must complete three credit hours of coursework in the Science and Nature knowledge area. Generally students in the Undergraduate Professional Studies Program complete the Science and Nature requirement with PRST 1120 Aspects of Modern Science* that is offered in the eight-week format. Other natural science courses may also fulfill the required 3 credit hours; however, these options are not offered through the eight-week format.

Human Nature and Ethics (HNE) (6 credit hours)

All students must complete PHIL 1001 Philosophy of Human Nature* and PHIL 2310 Theory of Ethics*.

Individual and Social Behavioral (ISB) (3 credit hours)

All students must complete three credit hours of coursework in the Individual and Social Behavior knowledge area. Other courses may also fulfill the 3 credit hour individual and social behavior requirement; however, these options are not offered through the eight-week format. Generally students in the Undergraduate Professional Studies Program complete the Individual and Social Behavior requirement with the following social science courses that are offered in the eight-week format.

Choose one of the following courses3
PSYC 1001General Psychology *3
SOCI 1001Principles of Sociology *3
CRLS 1001Introduction to Criminology *3
Theology (T) (6 credit hours)

All students must complete THEO 1001 Introduction to Theology* and one second level UCCS approved theology course for a total of six credit hours. THEO 2400 Christian Discipleship* is suggested as a second level theology selection and is offered in the eight-week format. Other second level UCCS approved theology courses may also fulfill the remaining 3 credit hours; however, these options are not offered through the eight-week format.

*

Courses fulfill University Core of Common Studies as well as college curriculum.

Undergraduate Professional Studies program Curriculum

Foundational and Communication Skills Courses (6 - 15 credit hours)

PRST 1001Foundations of Learning *3
PRST 1005Fundamentals of College Reading and Writing *3
PRST 1010Foundations of Research Writing *3
PRST 2110Principles of Liberal Studies3
CMST 3210Business and Professional Presentations3

*Courses have been designed to enhance educational success strategies and acclimation to the demands of current college reading, writing, and research skills that emphasize critical thinking.  Students may be required to complete one or more of these courses as a condition of enrollment upon recommendation of the admission committee.

Major in Leadership and Organizations

Requires 33 credit hours. All students must complete the core leadership courses along with one concentration. The concentrations include: Organizational Development and Public Service.

Core Leadership Courses:

Twenty-one hours of core leadership courses consisting of:

LEOR 2050Leading Teams and Groups3
LEOR 2100History and Theories of Leadership3
LEOR 3140Ethics in Leadership3
LEOR 3150Leadership and Diversity in Organizations3
LEOR 3610Leaders as Communicators3
LEOR 4997Integrating Seminar3
PRST 3110Research and Inquiry Methods3
Total Credit Hours21

Concentrations:

Organizational Development:

LEOR 3320Organizational Processes3
LEOR 3340Organization Development and Change3
LEOR 3350Organizational Behavior3
One upper division LEOR elective3
Total Credit Hours12

Public Service:

LEOR 3410Political Leadership3
LEOR 3440Leaders as Agents of Change3
LEOR 3520Community Based Leadership3
LEOR 3540Leadership in Grassroots Organizations3
Total Credit Hours12

 Cognates:

CMST 3210Business and Professional Presentations3
LEOR 3160Systems Thinking3
PRST 2110Principles of Liberal Studies3
Total Credit Hours9

Minor in Leadership and Organizations

Requires 21 credit hours. All students must complete the 12 credit hours of required courses along with 9 credit hours of upper-division LEOR course work.

LEOR 2050Leading Teams and Groups3
LEOR 2100History and Theories of Leadership3
LEOR 3140Ethics in Leadership3
LEOR 3150Leadership and Diversity in Organizations3
Nine credit hours of upper-division LEOR course work.9
Total Credit Hours21

Leadership and Organizations Courses

LEOR 1260. Personal and Family Financial Planning. 3 cr. hrs.

Focuses on the financial planning needs of individuals, families and working professionals. Specific emphasis is given to contemporary issues facing individuals and households by providing a general overview across a broad range of topics. These topics include family budgeting, personal investing, consumer purchasing, credit, home purchasing/mortgages, employee benefit selection and estate planning. Students will also develop detailed individual and family financial plans. Prereq: Enrolled in Professional Studies.

LEOR 1500. Introduction to Entrepreneurship. 3 cr. hrs.

Provides a solid foundation in the vital role played by entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship in the 21st century global economy. Introduces students to the process of launching a start-up business. Students learn the characteristics of entrepreneurs; the approaches used to create, identify and evaluate opportunities for a start-up; the skills that are needed to start and manage the opportunity; and how to develop a preliminary business plan. Prereq: Enrolled in Professional Studies or BUMD-Minor.

LEOR 2050. Leading Teams and Groups. 3 cr. hrs.

Team building and group theory, concepts, research and principles and applications; understanding how teams and groups function; development of skills needed to lead and work effectively in teams and groups; exercises, simulations, experiential learning. Prereq: Enrolled in Professional Studies or BUMD-Minor.

LEOR 2100. History and Theories of Leadership. 3 cr. hrs.

Analysis of the historical concepts and contemporary theories of leadership; emphasis on the application of leadership concepts to actual leadership situations. Prereq: Enrolled in Professional Studies.

LEOR 2210. Accounting Principles and Applications. 3 cr. hrs.

Measurement of income/expenses and the valuation of assets and equities under various kinds of organizations; structuring data to aid management decisions. Prereq: Enrolled in Professional Studies or BUMD-Minor, and MATH 1100 or PRST 1140 or equiv.

LEOR 2220. Economic Theory and Practice. 3 cr. hrs.

The Economic way of thinking (principles, analytic concepts and techniques) applied to consumer choice, resource use and the organization's pricing/hiring/production decisions; the operation of markets and the economic role of government; determinants of aggregate production, employment and the pricing level. Prereq: Enrolled in Professional Studies or BUMD-Minor, and MATH 1100 or PRST 1140 or equiv.

LEOR 2240. Principles of Financial Management. 3 cr. hrs.

Acquisition and utilization of funds to support the production, personnel and marketing functions; theory of finance in relation to planning, control, risk and optimum capital structure. Prereq: Enrolled in Professional Studies and MATH 1100 or PRST 1140 or equiv.

LEOR 2280. Marketing Concepts and E-commerce. 3 cr. hrs.

Examines the role of marketing from both a business strategy and societal perspective. Students will examine the strategic, decision-making aspects of marketing including demand creation, consumer behavior, product management, pricing strategies, e-commerce, and advertising. The course will emphasize contemporary marketing cases and students will participate in practical projects to reinforce demand creation theory. The program will also examine the societal aspects of marketing including the effects of advertising on shaping cultural attitudes, social mores, and public opinion. Prereq: Enrolled in Professional Studies or BUMD-Minor.

LEOR 3045. Interpersonal Conflict Management. 3 cr. hrs.

The theories and principles of interpersonal conflict will be explored. Emphasis on effective application of conflict management techniques, negotiation and resolution strategies in the workplace. Prereq: Enrolled in Professional Studies.

LEOR 3125. Issues in Organizational Leadership 1. 3 cr. hrs.

The study of selected topics and applications including ethics and leadership, leading individuals, decision making and problem solving, leadership in formal organizations, leader as change agent, leadership and motivation, policy and leadership, entrepreneurial leadership and leadership in non-Western cultures. Prereq: Enrolled in Professional Studies.

LEOR 3135. Issues in Organizational Leadership 2. 3 cr. hrs.

Provides an opportunity for students to discuss, learn and apply leadership concepts with regard to three primary challenges of leaders and managers: effective listening, conflict resolution and facilitation skills. Students are asked to integrate the knowledge and understandings they have accumulated throughout the Leadership and Organizations sequence and through their personal real-world experiences. The relevant topics are presented and approached through a variety of learning formats, including readings, discussions and writings. Prereq: Enrolled in Professional Studies.

LEOR 3140. Ethics in Leadership. 3 cr. hrs.

Provides a foundation in which the student examines, determines and applies the essential leadership dimension of ethical thought and behavior. Literature, presentations, projects, and discussion include contemporary and classical thinking and trace its evolution over time and circumstances. Consideration are given to Greek and Roman periods, the role of religious thought, the humanism of the Renaissance, the Age of Enlightenment and the Industrial Revolution. The outcomes of these eras in western civilization are compared to those of other cultures and regions with attention to the impact on related societies. Students experience the often complex and competing demands and interests of different cultures and societal groups and develop a personal sense of principles which have universal application along with areas of reasonable compromise in achieving ethical outcomes. Other world intercultural perspectives are explored including: political, legal, theological, environmental, educational and tradition-based institutions. Practical ethical issues and problems related to cultural diversity, international business environments and influences are explored. As a concluding exercise, students develop a paper on their personal philosophy concerning ethical leadership principles and practices to which they are willing to commit in their professional and personal lives. Prereq: Enrolled in Professional Studies.

LEOR 3150. Leadership and Diversity in Organizations. 3 cr. hrs.

Examination of interpersonal patterns of selected ethnic groups, races and social classes in the U.S.; gender differences and considerations; exploration of cultural diversity in the workplace: understanding appropriate behaviors; managing diversity in achieving the goal of the organization. Prereq: Enrolled in Professional Studies; LEOR 2050 recommended.

LEOR 3160. Systems Thinking. 3 cr. hrs.

The interconnections of infinitely complex networks of systems in organizational life will be explored. Basic concepts and principles of systems thinking will be explored. Application of such tools as behavior-over-time-graphs and causal loops will be a focus, as will strategies to see how various kinds of power flow through a system. Complex systems will be studied. Prereq: Enrolled in Professional Studies.

LEOR 3165. Leading Continuous Quality Improvement. 3 cr. hrs.

In-depth review of Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) philosophies and guiding principles. Interactive, hands-on learning of tools and techniques utilized in a CQI environment occur. Case studies highlight systems and structures employed in multiple organizations. Prereq: Enrolled in Professional Studies; recommend PRST 2140 or equiv.

LEOR 3175. Principles of Human Resource. 3 cr. hrs.

Examines the principles, methods and practical applications of human resource management. Issues concerning the effective, equitable, ethical and legal treatment of employees are reviewed related to attracting, selecting, developing, retaining, evaluating and utilizing human resources. Prereq: Enrolled in Professional Studies.

LEOR 3210. Global Commerce. 3 cr. hrs.

Equips students with an analytical perspective on the most recent issues in contemporary global commerce. Focuses on those forces currently having a profound impact and imposing unique leadership challenges on either corporate societal responsibility, the business operating environment, economic and regulatory systems, leadership or financial climates. Examines from three to six global topics per term. Emphasizes developing and examining management interventions and leadership solutions. Students are required to assess topical issues and propose solutions to those contemporary commercial challenges. Students are expected to work in collaborative teams and in an environment of spirited, constructive debate. Prereq: Enrolled in Professional Studies; two of the following: LEOR 1260, LEOR 2220, LEOR 2240, LEOR 2280.

LEOR 3320. Organizational Processes. 3 cr. hrs.

Analyzes the major organizational processes and the role that managers play in changing those processes to increase organizational effectiveness. Course material presents the concepts of leadership, teamwork and communication within an organizational setting and requires students to design an organizational structure that effectively considers the environment, technology, goals, profile and stage of growth of the organization. Prereq: Enrolled in Professional Studies.

LEOR 3340. Organization Development and Change. 3 cr. hrs.

Reviews the broad background of organizational development (OD) and examines the assumptions, strategies, models, intervention techniques and other aspects of organizational development. The fundamental theories that underlie planned change are examined. The process of planned changes is then studied through a look at how OD practitioners enter and contract with client systems to diagnose organizations, groups and jobs; collect, analyze and feed back diagnostic data; design interventions; manage change; and evaluate and institutionalize change. Major OD methods - human process, techno-structural, human resource management and strategic interventions are deliberated. Students learn through case studies how different OD techniques or interventions are used by actual organizations. Prereq: Enrolled in Professional Studies; Jr. stndg.; LEOR 3350 and LEOR 3320.

LEOR 3350. Organizational Behavior. 3 cr. hrs.

The behavior of people as individuals and in groups with emphasis on supervision, productivity and the organizational environment; the fundamentals of organizational theory, structure and administration. Prereq: Enrolled in Professional Studies or BUMD-Minor; LEOR 3320.

LEOR 3390. Organizational Strategies. 3 cr. hrs.

Investigates how to craft, implement and execute organization strategies. The importance of identifying and determining the value-creating potential of a firm's resources, capabilities and core competencies are examined. The dynamics of strategic change in the complex global economy and at the corporate level are studied. Prereq: Enrolled in Professional Studies and LEOR 3320.

LEOR 3410. Political Leadership. 3 cr. hrs.

Basic political theory and principles will be examined using the writings of Plato, Aristotle, Marcus Aurelius, St. Augustine, St. Thomas Aquinas, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Loeke, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Bentham, Marx, Spencer, and Gandhi. These theories will then be compared to the actions of political leaders during crises times, such as the U.S. Civil War, World Wars I and II, the Vietnam War, Civil Rights Movement, the Cold War, and the Suffrage Movement. Prereq: Enrolled in Professional Studies.

LEOR 3420. Integrity in Leadership-Religious Perspectives. 3 cr. hrs.

Considers the lives and teachings of some of history's outstanding religious leaders, including Jesus of Nazareth, David, St. Augustine, St. Ignatius of Loyola, Dietrich Bonhoeffer, Dorothy Day, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Luther King, Jr., Thomas Merton, and Pope John Paul II. Through critical analysis of autobiographical, biographical, and primary texts, the course will examine the manner in which each figure exemplifies the theological virtues of faith, hope, and love, and how these virtues guide, drive, and inform their respective lives and leadership. Prereq: Enrolled in Professional Studies and THEO 1001.

LEOR 3440. Leaders as Agents of Change. 3 cr. hrs.

Focuses on the manifestation of social movements, with a special emphasis on the leaders in these movements. Through readings, film, primary and secondary research, as well as class participation, students discover how social movement leaders emerge and the roles these leaders play in social movements and societies. Prereq: Enrolled in Professional Studies. LEOR 2050 and LEOR 3540 recommended.

LEOR 3460. Leaders in Literature. 3 cr. hrs.

Through a variety of literary texts, this course will provide perspectives on leadership by examining past examples of leaders who have emerged from the imagination of writers past. As we read these texts we will examine and debate the relevance of leadership figures in literature as embodiments of great ideas and moral concerns. We will contrast them to contemporary experiences and conduct, both professional and personal, as a means for establishing the value of such literary constructs to the formation of our own ideas and understanding of leadership. Study of leaders in literature will expand to the historical and literary contexts in which the works were created and from which the authors are writing. Students will develop an increasingly sophisticated understanding of literary period, and will be challenged to see the value of such literary works as powerful constructions of human imagination and spirit. Exposure to a variety of literary constructions of leadership can challenge students to develop a rich sense of their own leadership qualities and a method for reflecting upon, and analyzing the instances of leadership in their own workplaces and communities. Prereq: ENGL 1002.

LEOR 3480. Historical Leadership during World Conflicts. 3 cr. hrs.

Requires the student to examine leadership events during world conflicts and analyze them using leadership theories that elucidate the critical elements of leadership and decision making. These elements include how the leader(s) and followers exerted influence, decided upon goals and objectives, developed courses of action to attain those goals, and developed a shared sense of purpose to successfully implement a course of action. Students develop case studies of key events and decisions. Prereq: Enrolled in Professional Studies; HIST 1001 or HIST 1002 and LEOR 2100.

LEOR 3520. Community Based Leadership. 3 cr. hrs.

A historical, sociological and political examination of not-for-profit, non-profit and for profit organizations. Distinctions between non-profit, not-for-profit and for-profit organizations are examined. Reviews current theories of leadership in not-for-profits, non-profits and for profits and examines the impact of the leader on fund raising, public policy, meeting legal requirements, recruiting and mission. Prereq: Enrolled in Professional Studies. LEOR 3440 recommended.

LEOR 3540. Leadership in Grassroots Organizations. 3 cr. hrs.

The importance of an involved citizenry as key to the preservation of a democratic society is examined. The study and value of grassroots organizations provide a unique opportunity to examine the value and impact of such organizations in American life. What social and/or political events give rise to grassroots organizations? How do "ordinary" people emerge as leaders? To examine these questions, this class explores strategies, tactics, motivation, community-building and leadership emergence. An optional service-learning component is available.

LEOR 3610. Leaders as Communicators. 3 cr. hrs.

Moves beyond the study of what a leader is to how a leader accomplishes. While examining how leaders use communication students critically analyze these questions: What is the relationship between leadership and communication styles? What communication competencies are needed by organizational leaders? How do leaders use communication to facilitate change in organizations? How does an individuals' gender, race and/or ethnicity affect leadership and communication behaviors. Prereq: Enrolled in Professional Studies.

LEOR 3710. Information Systems for Management. 3 cr. hrs.

An overview of the technological, managerial and organizational factors which impact information systems. The critical role of information systems at the operational, tactical and strategic levels of the organization will be examined. Advanced productivity application software projects. Prereq: Enrolled in Professional Studies and PRST 1110; suggest completion of 3 of the classes LEOR 2210, 2220, 2240, 2280.

LEOR 4931. Topics in Leadership and Organizations. 1-3 cr. hrs.

Various topics selected from one of the various within organization and/or leadership. Specific topics to be announced in the Schedule of Classes. Prereq: Enrolled in Professional Studies and Jr. stndg.

LEOR 4995. Independent Study in Leadership and Organizations. 1-3 cr. hrs.

Research on a selected topic under the direction of a faculty member of the college of Professional Studies. Prereq: Enrolled in Professional Studies; cons. of Associate Dean.

LEOR 4997. Integrating Seminar. 3 cr. hrs.

Interdisciplinary, capstone experience; concentration on leadership as an integrated theme; shaping individual theories and applications across the curriculum into a holistic approach; using leadership skills to promote the advancement of community and organizational goals. Completion of all previous course work required. Prereq: Enrolled in Professional Studies; Sr. stndg.

Professional Studies Courses

PRST 1001. Foundations of Learning. 3 cr. hrs.

Orientation to the environment and demands of the college classroom and a Marquette education; readings and discussion in literature and humanities; exploration of the learning skills needed for academic success; critical thinking, writing, studying memory, note and test taking, library and others. S/U grade assessment. Prereq: Open to first-year College of Professional Studies students only.

PRST 1005. Fundamentals of College Reading and Writing. 3 cr. hrs.

Focus is on the reading and writing skills necessary for success in the college's core curriculum courses. Introduces students to the critical reading strategies required in an academic setting and to the elements of the composing process (prewriting, drafting, editing and revising). Course covers the basic writing skills of various essay structures and grammar conventions. Students are instructed on how to write essays using scholarly sources and appropriate documentation (APA). Close collaboration with the university's librarians help students establish a research environment for this and future courses. Students are expected to write often, participate in peer review and become critical readers of their own work. Students may be required to register for this course upon recommendation of the admission committee as a condition of enrollment.

PRST 1010. Foundations of Research Writing. 3 cr. hrs.

Designed to help students with little or no experience using current research methods to implement the critical reading and thinking skills and other strategies necessary to the practice of persuasive research writing. Focuses on the process of learning how to argue effectively on paper. Students have the opportunity to develop their research writing skills by writing multiple drafts with well-documented, credible sources. Entering transfer students may be required to register for this course upon recommendation of the admission committee as a condition of enrollment. Prereq: Enrolled in the College of Professional Studies; ENGL 1001 and/or 1002 equivs. Must be completed within the first year of student's academic career.

PRST 1110. Introduction to Information Systems. 3 cr. hrs.

Fundamental information technology concepts and processes. An introduction to the major productivity application software packages and computer-based research. Prereq: Enrolled in Professional Studies.

PRST 1120. Aspects of Modern Science. 3 cr. hrs.

An interdisciplinary, integrated study of processes and principles of modern biology, chemistry, and physics. Scientific inquiry as a means of knowledge; major technological contributions to modern societies: stability, information transfer, and evolution of biological systems, emphasizing relevant chemical and physical processes in specific environments. Accepted as natural science requirement for Leadership and Organization students only. Prereq: Enrolled in Professional Studies.

PRST 1140. Foundations of Applied Mathematics. 3 cr. hrs.

This course includes the development of computational skills and the application of mathematics in business and other organizational disciplines. Topics will include algebraic operation, formula use and interpretation, equations and inequalities, graphs and functions, probability concepts, mathematics of finance, linear systems and linear programming. Prereq: Enrolled in Professional Studies; two years of college preparatory mathematics.

PRST 2110. Principles of Liberal Studies. 3 cr. hrs.

Introduction to the disciplinary frameworks of the common core offered by Marquette University. Its purpose is to promote lifelong learning, and enhance the skills of analysis, problem solving, critical thinking, writing and communication needed for successful academic achievement in a liberal arts education. The course develops a common ground of understanding and values among students through shared knowledge of the liberal arts. The course offers students an opportunity to enhance their critical thinking, oral expression and writing. Prereq: Enrolled in Professional Studies; ENGL 1001 and ENGL 1002 or equiv.

PRST 2140. Research and Statistical Methods. 3 cr. hrs.

Introduction to research and statistical methods used in business-related decisions; descriptive statistics; probability theory and distributions; sampling and sampling distributions; estimations and inferences; hypothesis testing; chi-squared and testing goodness-of-fit; contingency tables; correlation and regression. Prereq: Enrolled in Professional Studies; MATH 1100 or PRST 1140 recommended.

PRST 3110. Research and Inquiry Methods. 3 cr. hrs.

An upper-level course designed to expose the learner to the methods and means of scientific inquiry. The course offers the student three topical emphases to explore: multi-disciplinary case analyses, an examination of ethical issues in research and reporting, and statistical software use. Students will construct a survey instrument, practice focus group studies and engage in comparative analysis through group work. An introductory statistics course is required as a prerequisite. Prereq: Enrolled in the College of Professional Studies; PRST 2140 or equiv.

PRST 3986. Internship in Professional Studies. 1-3 cr. hrs.

Field experience in government, non-profit, corporate, and/or other administrative law agencies for the purpose of furthering the student's integration of theory, skills, and practice as related to a student's major or minor within a professional organizational setting. Experiential opportunities are augmented with selected readings, reflective journals, papers, and in-class seminars. Prereq: Enrolled in Professional Studies; Jr. stndg.; cum GPA of 2.000; ENGL 1001, ENGL 1002, and LEOR 2100 or CMST 1000, or CRLS 1001.

PRST 4995. Independent Study in Professional Studies. 1-3 cr. hrs.

Research on a selected topic under the direction of a faculty member of the College of Professional Studies. Prereq: Enrolled in the College of Professional Studies; cons. of Associate Dean.