Academic integrity is the foundation of learning, research, and scholarship. To that end, it is imperative that all members of the university community adhere to a shared understanding of the standards outlined in this policy. All faculty, staff, and students are required to recognize, respect and uphold:
- The Statement on Academic Integrity
- The Honor Pledge
- The Honor Code
- Best Practices
- Academic Misconduct Policy
Statement on Academic Integrity
We, the scholars of Marquette University, recognize the importance of personal integrity in all aspects of life and work. We commit ourselves to truthfulness, honor, and responsibility by which we earn the respect of others. We support the development of good character in our academic community, and commit to uphold the highest standards of academic integrity as an important aspect of personal integrity. Our commitment obliges us as students, faculty, and staff to conduct ourselves according to the Marquette University Honor Code set forth below. We do this in pursuit of Marquette University’s mission, which is the search for truth, the discovery and sharing of knowledge, the fostering of personal and professional excellence, the promotion of a life of faith, and the development of leadership expressed in service to others.
Students are asked to commit to academic integrity through the following honor pledge. Faculty may require students to sign the pledge in their courses or for any individual assignment.
I recognize the importance of personal integrity in all aspects of life and work. I commit myself to truthfulness, honor, and responsibility, by which I earn the respect of others. I support the development of good character, and commit myself to uphold the highest standards of academic integrity as an important aspect of personal integrity. My commitment obliges me to conduct myself according to the Marquette University Honor Code.
The honor code obliges students:
- To fully observe the rules governing exams and assignments regarding resource material, electronic aids, copying, collaborating with others, or engaging in any other behavior that subverts the purpose of the exam or assignment and the directions of the instructor.
- To turn in work done specifically for the paper or assignment, and not to borrow work either from other students, or from assignments for other courses, unless approved by the faculty member.
- To give full and proper credit to sources and references, and to acknowledge the contributions and ideas of others relevant to academic work.
- To report circumstances that may compromise academic honesty, such as inattentive proctoring or premature posting of answers.
- To complete individual assignments individually, and neither to accept nor give unauthorized help.
- To accurately represent their academic achievements, which may include their grade point average, degree, honors, etc., in transcripts, in interviews, in professional organizations, on resumes and in the workplace.
- To report any observed breaches of this honor code and academic honesty.
Academic integrity is a matter of great importance to the entire Marquette community and as such the honor code obliges others on campus as well.
The honor code obliges instructors:
- To monitor and design exams and assignments so that honest students will not be disadvantaged by other students who might choose to cheat if given the opportunity.
- To report circumstances that may compromise academic honesty, such as inattentive proctoring or premature posting of answers.
- To follow all published procedures regarding cases of academic misconduct.
- To report any observed breaches of this honor code and academic honesty.
The honor code obliges researchers:
- To give full and proper credit to sources and references, and to acknowledge the contributions and ideas of others relevant to research.
- To conduct research experiments according to professional standards of objectivity, conscientiousness, reliability and transparency.
- To conduct all experiments according to professional ethical standards, and, when applicable, to submit all proposed investigations to the relevant oversight bodies.
- To provide sufficient documentation of research methodology so that other researchers in the field may replicate work.
- To observe all duties required by copyright, trademark, patent and/or other applicable laws or regulations.
- To follow all published procedures regarding cases of personal and academic misconduct.
- To report any observed breaches of this honor code and academic honesty.
The honor code obliges staff:
- To interpret procedures and regulations in the spirit of furthering the highest standards of personal and academic integrity.
- To report circumstances that may compromise academic honesty, such as inattentive proctoring or premature posting of answers.
- To follow through on reporting, punishment, and record-keeping on all incidents of personal and academic misconduct.
- To follow all published procedures regarding case of personal and academic misconduct.
- To report any observed breaches of this honor code and academic honesty.
Academic Integrity Best Practices
In addition to the honor code, members of the Marquette University community commit to the following set of best practices.
As students we strive to come to class on time and to be prepared for the material at hand. This includes all readings and assignments. We strive to devote our full attention to the class proceedings and to be fully engaged in class discussions and activities. We recognize the importance of asking questions about material we don’t understand, as it helps other students who may not have thought of the question but need to hear the answer, and it gives the instructor valuable feedback. We respect the views of classmates and instructors, and we avoid distracting the class and instructor with irrelevant conversations or behavior. We strive to prepare for exams in a timely manner, and to seek help from the instructor when necessary during the preparation. We start preparing papers, projects, and homework assignments early enough to have sufficient time to do the best we can.
As instructors we strive to be prepared and current with respect to the content and conduct of our courses, and to plan the course and class sessions to achieve the course objectives effectively. We strive to answer questions honestly and completely, and to acknowledge when we do not have an answer. We strive to give all students equal opportunity to participate in class discussions and activities. We respect students’ views on issues of judgment, and we clearly distinguish between our personal opinions and our professional expertise. We are available during office hours or at arranged times to work with students individually to help them to master course material. We strive to develop and update exams and assignments so that they are meaningful tests of understanding and progress toward achieving course objectives. Finally, we give due and careful consideration to students’ answers and submissions when evaluating them and assigning grades.
As researchers we strive to be honest, accurate, efficient, ethical, objective, and accountable in conducting and reporting our research efforts. Where applicable, we aim to publish in outlets accessible to other professionals in the field for the greatest possible dissemination of creative scholarly research.
As staff we strive to serve all faculty and students within the confines of Marquette University’s policy and procedure. We recognize the importance of serving all faculty and students fairly and on a timely basis, while maintaining confidentiality. We respect teaching and learning, and support faculty and students in this endeavor every day.
Academic Integrity Tutorial
All undergraduate, graduate and health science professional students must successfully complete an Academic Integrity tutorial during their first term of enrollment, or be subject to a registration hold for the following term.
Academic Misconduct Policy
Definitions of Academic Misconduct
Academic misconduct includes, but is not limited to, individual violations, helping another student with any form of academic misconduct, failing to report any form of academic misconduct, or intentionally interfering with the educational process in any manner. Faculty, staff or students who are aware of academic misconduct and fail to report it are considered complicit in these actions. The following sections provide representative examples of academic misconduct. If a student is in doubt as to whether an action or behavior is subject to the academic misconduct policy, he/she should consult an appropriate member of the Academic Integrity Council, faculty or staff.
- Copying from others for an assignment and/or during an examination, test or quiz.
- Obtaining, or attempting to obtain, an assignment, examination, test, quiz or answer key without authorization.
- Using unauthorized electronic devices or materials for an assignment, during an examination, test or quiz.
- Communicating answers or providing unauthorized assistance for an assignment, examination, test or quiz.
- Using unauthorized answers or assistance for an assignment, examination, test or quiz.
- Offering one’s own work to another person, or presenting another person’s work as one’s own.
- Completing an assignment and/or taking an examination, test or quiz for another student, or having someone complete an assignment , take an examination, test or quiz for oneself.
- Tampering with an assignment, examination, test or quiz after it has been graded, and then returning it for additional credit.
- Outsourcing assignments, papers, examinations, tests, quizzes to fellow students or third parties.
Plagiarism is intellectual theft by the unethical use of sources. It means use of another’s creations or ideas without proper attribution. Credit must be given for every direct quotation, for paraphrasing or summarizing any part of a work and for any information that is not common knowledge. Plagiarism is further addressed in the Academic Integrity Tutorial.
- Altering or forging documents including forms, letters, grade reports, medical reports, transcripts, and verifications.
- Submitting substantial portions of the same work for credit in more than one course, or from previous institutions, without receiving permission from all instructors involved.
- Using purchased answers, or selling answers to assignments, examinations, quizzes or papers.
- Attending class for another, or having others attend class for oneself.
- Falsifying the records of clients or patients.
- Falsifying one’s own clinical, co-op, field placement or internship records.
- Misrepresenting oneself, degree(s), areas of study, coursework and/or grade point average.
The University Research Misconduct Policy applies to faculty, staff, students, and others who are employed by or affiliated with Marquette University. Research misconduct is defined as fabrication, falsification, or plagiarism in proposing, performing, or reviewing research, or in reporting research results.
Procedures for Incidents of Academic Misconduct
When a faculty member or other member of the Marquette community has reason to suspect or receives notification of a student’s alleged academic misconduct, he or she must complete the Academic Misconduct Report form and submit it to the Academic Integrity Council Director within five business days of obtaining information about an alleged violation. The reporter must include a summary and attach evidence, if any, of the alleged misconduct.
The Academic Integrity Council Director will notify the student and select an Investigating Officer to review the materials, interview the student and the reporter of the alleged misconduct. Within six business days of receiving the Academic Misconduct Report form, the Investigating Officer will determine if the case warrants further action or is to be dismissed and inform the Academic Integrity Council Director of same. . Once the Investigating Officer informs the Academic Integrity Council Director of the decision, the Academic Integrity Council Director or designee will review the Investigating Officer’s summary and notify the student within two business days of the disposition. For cases moving forward, the Academic Integrity Council Director will determine whether the case is eligible for expedited review or must be referred for a full hearing.
A student who withdraws from a class or the University, and is later found to have violated the Academic Integrity Policy the withdrawal may be changed to an administrative or failing grade.
If the student has no record of academic misconduct at Marquette University and the alleged misconduct is relatively minor and does not involve graduate students, or Health Science Professional courses, the Academic Integrity Council Director may offer the student an expedited review specifying the maximum penalty that could be assigned. The student has two business days to respond to the Academic Integrity Council Director. If the student accepts responsibility and the penalty, the Academic Integrity Council Director will send a final letter to the student summarizing the finding and the penalty. At the same time, the Academic Integrity Council Director, will send a letter specifying the penalty to the student’s college/school office, and the faculty member in whose class the misconduct occurred.
If the student does not accept the expedited review option, the case will move to a full hearing.
In all cases, a copy of the file relating to the alleged misconduct including all correspondence will be forwarded to the Office of the Registrar to be held in the student’s permanent confidential file.
A Hearing Board will be convened by the Academic Integrity Council Director for cases that are ineligible for expedited review, all cases in which students request a hearing or cases the Academic Integrity Council Director deems appropriate., The Board, will generally consist of two faculty, two students and the Dean’s Office Designee from the student’s college/school. A faculty member will normally be assigned the role of board facilitator.
- On being formed, the Hearing Board will review all documents and material related to the alleged misconduct
- A hearing will normally occur within ten business days of the Board’s formation. The hearing may be delayed by up to 30 business days if the Board cannot be convened.
- The Board will determine whether there are witnesses it wishes to call in addition to the student under investigation. The student under investigation may also request additional evidentiary witnesses and provide additional information for consideration to the board facilitator at least two business days prior to the hearing.
- The student may bring an individual for support. This person is not allowed to contribute to the proceedings. If the support person is an attorney, a representative from the Office of the General Counsel at Marquette must also be present. In these cases the hearing may need to be rescheduled to allow a member of the Office of the General Counsel to attend.
- Prior to deliberation, the Board will excuse all non-Board members from the meeting.
- Within three business days of the hearing, the Academic Integrity Council Director will send a letter to the Office of the Dean in the student’s home College/School. The Dean’s office has three business days to review the finding and inform the Academic Integrity Council Director of any changes to the recommended penalty.
- At the same time, a copy of the file relating to the alleged misconduct including all correspondence will be forwarded to the Office of the Registrar to be held in the student’s permanent confidential file, and if applicable, the maximum grade penalty allowed will be forwarded to the faculty member in whose class the misconduct occurred.
- Within six business days of the hearing, the Academic Integrity Council Director will inform the student summarizing the finding and the outcome (i.e., any penalty).
A student has the right to appeal the hearing board’s determination if he/she believes the determination was unfounded, biased or capricious or there is new information available that was not available at the time of hearing which affects the disciplinary decision.. In this case the student should submit a formal written appeal stating the grounds for appeal and relevant documentation to the Academic Integrity Council Director within five calendar days of the notification of the decision. Upon receipt of the appeal the Academic Integrity Council Director will convene a review of the student’s actions by the Academic Integrity Council Executive Committee. The committee reviews the details of the student’s actions and may ask to speak to the student, the instructor, the chair of the department offering the course, associate deans and others. The Academic Integrity Executive Committee will review the appeal and, make a determination within five business days of receipt of the appeal. The Academic Integrity Council Director will provide a written statement to all parties concerned. The decision of the Academic Integrity Executive Committee is final. A copy of the decision will be placed in the student academic file located in the Office of the Registrar. The disciplinary response and procedure for incidents of academic dishonesty that do not lead to suspension or expulsion concludes at this step.
For actions involving campus-wide sanctions, such as suspension or expulsion, the student has the right of appeal to the Office of the Provost. A formal written appeal stating the grounds for appeal and available documentation is to be submitted to the Office of the Provost within five business days of the notification of the hearing board’s decision. The provost or designee will conduct a review of the appeal materials, may seek additional information, and may consult with the student, faculty, chair(s), associate dean(s), deans and others. The final decision to uphold or modify the action of the hearing board will be provided to the student and to the dean and associate dean of the student’s assigned college within fifteen business days of receipt of the appeal. A copy of the provost’s decision will be placed in the student academic file located in the Office of the Registrar. The decision of the provost is final.
Maintenance of Disciplinary Records
Records relating to academic misconduct will be maintained by the Office of the Registrar in perpetuity. The university will not release a student’s disciplinary records to any person and/or entity unless authorized to do so by the student in question or when allowed by law.
Professional Ethics and Standards
These procedures do not supersede or take the place of procedures established for students who violate professional standards applicable to a particular program, college or school. Separate procedures and/or outcomes may be invoked when students are found in violation of professional standards or codes of ethics related to special programs, licensure or certification as determined by the program’s external or internal professional requirements. It is the student’s responsibility to know and follow these standards/codes of ethics, which are part of the student’s academic program. These special expectations and procedures, including the appeals process, will be provided to the student upon enrollment in the program and are available in published form in the administrative offices overseeing these programs.
The Graduate School, as well as each academic unit, regularly evaluates the academic performance of its graduate students, adhering to the standards of Marquette University, the Graduate School, and the standards and requirements established by each academic unit and program. Students must earn acceptable grades and adhere to the requirements of academic honesty, professional integrity, and professional performance as well as continue to make satisfactory progress toward their degrees and meet the expectations of the Marquette University Student Conduct Code. The specific expectations related to each of these requirements are described at various points earlier in the Graduate School Bulletin and in the next section below.
By virtue of the special nature of clinical courses in health care and other human service fields, students will be held to clinical and professional standards in addition to academic standards. If, in the opinion of the supervising faculty member, the student is falling short of expected levels of performance or professional behavior, the student may be removed immediately from the class. In many cases, the student will be counseled regarding the deficiency and will be given an opportunity to retake the class. However, depending on the type and severity of the deficiency, the student may be dismissed from the program and the Graduate School.
Satisfactory Progress Toward the Degree
Satisfactory academic work is not determined exclusively by course grades. All graduate degree students must also make substantial and visible progress toward their degrees. This includes successful completion of any required language examination that may be required, research or clinical training requirements, comprehensive or qualifying examination, thesis or dissertation. Failure to make continual and satisfactory progress toward one’s degree may result in dismissal.
There are five categories of student performance problems that can lead to some form of censure. These problems may be identified at any point during the academic year, though a systematic review of all students’ course grades is also conducted at the end of each academic term. The review of other, non-course grade problems is typically conducted on an individual basis as issues arise. A finding of significant problems in any of these areas can result in a warning, probation, suspension, dismissal, or expulsion, depending on the nature and severity of the problems identified. All of these statuses are maintained permanently on the student’s academic record; only dismissal and expulsion, however, appear permanently on Marquette University’s official transcript. If a student is reinstated following a dismissal, that notation will also permanently appear on the student’s official transcript. The statuses that will appear permanently on a student’s official transcript include those listed (in bold type) below. Also listed are examples of applicable requirements.
- Required to Withdraw for Academic Reasons (e.g., failing to maintain a minimum GPA of 3.000; see the section below)
- Required to Withdraw for Academic Misconduct (e.g., academic dishonesty; see Academic Integrity Policy in this section.)
- Required to Withdraw for Non-Academic Reasons (e.g., violations of the Student Conduct Code on the Office of Student Development website)
- Required to Withdraw for Unsatisfactory Degree Progress (e.g., failing to meet the 8-year time limit for completing a doctoral degree, a second failure on a comprehensive or qualifying exam; see the Satisfactory Progress Toward the Degree section above)
- Required to Withdraw for Professional Performance Reasons (e.g., unsatisfactory performance in clinical programs; see Professional Performance Policy in this bulletin.
- Required to Withdraw for Professional Integrity Reasons (e.g., violations of professional integrity or an applicable ethics code; see Professional Integrity Policy in this bulletin.
- Reinstated on Probation (following a successful appeal of a dismissal)
Academic Grade Requirements
All students in the Graduate School are expected to maintain a minimum cumulative grade point average (GPA) of 3.000 in all Marquette course work. These are minimum standards for grades; individual programs may specify higher standards to which students will be held by the programs. Any higher standards specified by individual programs are noted in program handbooks.
Academic Probation and Dismissal
Students who do not meet the GPA requirements listed below will be academically dismissed (i.e., Required to Withdraw for Academic Reasons) and they will also be found to have failed to meet the financial aid requirements for making Satisfactory Academic Progress. These students will be dropped from any future terms in which they may be registered, will not be eligible to receive financial aid, and will be required to return any financial aid that may have been distributed since the grades were received.
- Students who have attempted 9 or fewer credit hours must maintain a cumulative GPA of at least 2.500.
- Students who have attempted more than 9 credit hours must maintain a cumulative GPA of at least 3.000.
Students who obtain a cumulative GPA of at least 2.500 but less than 3.000 in their first 9 attempted credits of course work will be placed on Academic Probation and will be notified that they will subsequently be dismissed if they fail to raise their cumulative GPA to 3.000 by the time they attempt more than 9 credits of course work. Attempted course work includes courses in which grades of W (Withdrawal) or I (Incomplete) are obtained.
Students who receive an F or U in any course, whether for credit or not, will either be placed on probation or be dismissed even when their cumulative GPA is 3.000 or above. Depending on the nature and seriousness of the reasons for receiving the F or U, a student may be dismissed for failing to meet expectations for professional performance, professional integrity, academic honesty, or the other categories of withdrawal reasons noted above. If the student is not dismissed, he or she will be placed on Academic Probation which will often include specific conditions that must be met to avoid additional academic censure after the next fall, spring, or summer term.
Students whose grades fall below 3.000 in any individual term, even though their cumulative GPA remains above 3.000, will receive notice alerting them of the potential for dismissal if their grades fall further. This notice does not affect a student’s ability to register for courses for the next term, but is given to encourage students to avoid academic censure in the future.
Satisfactory Academic Progress: in addition to the above requirements, students must complete at least 75% of their cumulative credit hours attempted to retain eligibility for financial aid. The Office of Student Financial Aid conducts a review at the end of each spring term to identify students who fail to meet this requirement for Satisfactory Academic Progress. Students failing this requirement are allowed to continue at Marquette University, but they will not be eligible to receive any federal financial aid unless their case is appealed and overturned (see appeals process below). Failing to meet this requirement is not an academic censure (unless it is also found to comprise unsatisfactory degree progress), but it is noted here because it can affect students’ ability to continue in their program. Refer to the Financial Aid Satisfactory Academic Progress policy on the Office of Student Financial Aid website, which provides information on SAP.
Students have the right to appeal the imposition of any sanctions due to unsatisfactory academic performance, findings of academic dishonesty, unsatisfactory professional integrity or performance, or student misconduct. The point of appeal is dependent upon who has the responsibility for imposing the sanction. For example, cases of academic dishonesty are governed by Marquette University’s Academic Honesty Policy.
Appeal of Dismissal for Required to Withdraw for Academic Reasons
A student who has been dismissed for failing to meet the cumulative grade point requirements stated in the previous section may appeal the dismissal by completing and submitting one form which addresses both the Required to Withdraw for Academic Reasons (RWAR) and the Satisfactory Academic Progress (SAP) issues.
The RWAR/SAP Appeal (Academic Censure) forms are posted on the Marquette Central academic forms website and include all of the required information the student must submit in order to have his or her appeal reviewed. The appeal form must include an academic plan that addresses how the student’s academic deficiencies will be addressed and how the student will regain satisfactory academic standing. The plan must be measurable and ensure that the student is able to meet Marquette’s academic standards by a specific point in time. The plan should include courses to be taken, expected grades, and a time frame to complete the outlined objectives. This plan requires the signature of the student’s director of graduate study (DGS) before it can be submitted to the Graduate School.
The completed appeal form is submitted to the associate dean of the Graduate School, the person who makes the final decisions on all RWAR/SAP appeals. If the appeal is approved, the student will be Reinstated on Probation and the DGS and the Graduate School will monitor the plan that was specified on the appeal form. The student will also become eligible for financial aid at this time. During the subsequent academic term, however, should the student not fulfill all of his or her obligations as outlined in the plan, the student will be evaluated by the Graduate School and a determination will be made regarding whether the student will be allowed to continue in his or her program or placed on another term of probation.
Appeal of Dismissal for Other (Non-GPA) Reasons
Students dismissed for reasons other than cumulative grade point average or academic dishonesty may appeal their dismissal using the procedures described below. (Students dismissed due to unsatisfactory cumulative grade point average may appeal their dismissals using the procedure described in the section above, and students who are dismissed due to academic dishonesty may appeal their dismissals according to the policy outlined below or via the process outlined in the Academic Integrity Policy in this section.
Within 10 days after the date of the dismissal for reasons other than cumulative grade point average or academic dishonesty, a student may appeal the decision by submitting a letter of appeal to the dean of the Graduate School. The dean of the Graduate School will decide whether to hear the appeal alone or to convene a meeting of a subcommittee of the University Board of Graduate Studies (UBGS) to weigh the appeal materials and to obtain testimony delivered live to the subcommittee by the student and academic unit representatives. Situations dealing only with substandard academic performance will typically be considered by the dean, whereas issues dealing with an alleged violation of rights or procedures may be referred to a subcommittee of the UBGS. If referred to a subcommittee of the UBGS, the recommendation of the subcommittee as well as all materials provided to the subcommittee by the student and the academic unit will be considered by the dean of the Graduate School, whose decision on the appeal is final.
Dismissed students may apply for readmission by following the procedures found in the Admission and Readmission section of this bulletin.
Academic Programs Defined
An academic program is a combination of courses and related activities organized for the achievement of specific learning outcomes as defined by the university. This includes programming at both the undergraduate, graduate and professional level and consists of degrees, majors, minors, concentrations, specializations and certificates.
- Degree Program: An academic program of study leading to a bachelor’s, master’s, Ph.D. or professional degree. All degree programs require a minimum number of semester credit hours, as referenced in the official bulletins of the university that are produced each academic year.
- Specialization: An integrated, coherent set of courses that define a limited topic or field of study at the graduate level that is taken within the degree program. A minimum of 12 semester credit hours must be earned in the specialization.
- Certificate: A post-baccalaureate or post-master program of study offered at the graduate or professional level, in which a specific skill set is demonstrated at the end of the program, usually culminating in a capstone course. In order to earn a certificate, the program of study must be offered apart from a degree; however, the courses in a certificate program may be applied toward a graduate or professional degree program. A minimum of 12 semester credit hours must be earned in a certificate program.
In the admission letter, the Graduate School notifies each student to contact his/her department for identification of the assigned adviser and for advising prior to registration. All students should meet or talk with the adviser before registering for classes. The Graduate School strongly recommends that students meet regularly with their advisers; an adviser plays an important role in the graduate student’s course of study. An adviser’s signature is required on most forms submitted to the Graduate School and a student’s program of study is not valid until it has been approved by both the adviser and the Graduate School. Students who want to change advisers should check with their department for additional information and instructions.
Non-degree and temporary graduate students are normally not assigned academic advisers. Students in these categories who need assistance should contact the department in which they will focus their course of study.
Assistantships and Fellowships
All graduate students who receive merit-based graduate assistantships and fellowships must be full-time students in the term in which they receive the aid. All graduate students who receive merit-based scholarships from the Graduate School are not required to be registered full time. For assistantships, full-time status can be achieved by taking six credits of course work plus Graduate Assistant Teaching, Graduate Assistant Research or Graduate Fellowship, depending on the award received. These zero-credit courses will carry the status of full-time when combined with six credits of course work.
The following course numbers will be used in conjunction with the department acronym:
Graduate Fellowship (full-time, FT) = 9974
Graduate Assistant Teaching (full-time, FT) = 9975
Graduate Assistant Research (full-time, FT) = 9976
Students may use their assistanship funding to pay for Graduate Assistant Teaching, Graduate Assistant Research or Graduate Fellowship course fees. It is not required that all TAs and RAs be registered for one of these continuation courses; if a student already meets full-time status based on course work, then these continuation courses need not be used to obtain full-time status.
Teaching and research assistants, and recipients of scholarships or fellowships, must register for the appropriate course, which will be graded on an SNC/UNC basis. Registration will require the consent of the student’s adviser and department, which must be secured prior to registering.
Registration requires the following procedures:
- The student and his/her adviser meet and complete the registration form.
- The student will be given a permission number to be used during the registration process.
- The student registers via CheckMarq for the appropriate course, using the permission number received.
- The completed and approved form shall be delivered to the Graduate School.
Background Checks, Drug Testing
Some degrees, majors and/or courses may require a student to submit to a criminal background check and/or drug testing. The results of those checks and/or tests may affect the student’s eligibility to continue in that degree and/or course.
Commencement at Marquette is a symbolic ceremony provided for students, faculty and families in celebration of our students’ accomplishments. Following is the policy regulating participation in the University Commencement.
- Marquette offers one Commencement per year. Commencement is held in May, following the spring term.
- Spring Graduates:
- Undergraduate/Master's/Health Sciences Professional students: Students who are in good academic standing, have met the appropriate graduation application deadline and will complete all degree requirements, including the official recording of any transfer work/credit by the end of the spring term, may participate in Commencement held in the same calendar year.
- Dental students: Students who are in good academic standing, have met the appropriate graduation application deadline and will complete all degree requirements, including the official recording of any transfer work/credit by the end of the spring term, will participate in Commencement held in the same calendar year.
- Doctoral students: Candidates must have met the appropriate graduation application deadline, have any transfer work/credit officially recorded, successfully defended their dissertation, received approval by their Dissertation Committee for any required revisions, submitted their dissertation to the Graduate School and received approval of the dissertation format by the Graduate School before the published deadline in order to participate in the Commencement held in the same calendar year.
- Law students: Students who are in good academic standing, have met the appropriate graduation application deadline and will complete all degree requirements, including the official recording of any transfer work by the end of the spring term, will participate in Commencement and be hooded and honored at the May Law School Hooding Ceremony of the same calendar year.
- Summer and Fall Graduates:
- Undergraduate/Master's/Health Sciences Professional students: Students who are in good academic standing, have met the appropriate graduation application deadline and will complete all degree requirements, including the official recording of any transfer work/credit after the Commencement of a given year, may participate in Commencement held in the same calendar year, or may choose to participate in the Commencement held in the following calendar year.
- Doctoral students: Candidates who complete their degree/dissertation (see 2. above) after Commencement of a given year, may be hooded and honored at a December Hooding Ceremony hosted by the Graduate School, or may choose to participate in Commencement held the following May.
- Law students:
- Summer graduates: Students who are in good academic standing, have met the appropriate graduation application deadline and will complete all degree requirements, including the official recording of any transfer work in the summer term after Commencement of a given calendar year, may participate in Commencement of the same calendar year, or may choose to participate in the Commencement held in the following calendar year.
- Fall graduates: Students who are in good academic standing, have met the appropriate graduation application deadline and will complete all degree requirements, including the official recording of any transfer work by the end of the fall term may be hooded and honored in the December Hooding Ceremony, hosted by the Law School in the same calendar year; or may choose to participate in Commencement and be hooded and honored at the May Hooding Ceremony, hosted by the Law School in the following calendar year.
- Students' names/degrees will appear in the Commencement Program in which they participate; however, those students who are in degree programs that award graduation honors and choose to participate in commencement before completion of all degree requirements, will not have honors noted in the program.
- Degree conferral is certified by the official Marquette transcript noting the degree completion. Receipt of a diploma or participation in the Commencement ceremony does not constitute certification of degree conferral.
- Any exceptions to this policy must be approved by the provost.
The Office of the President sends one invitation/announcement to the name indicated on the Graduation Application each graduating student submits online via the Student Center in CheckMarq. However, there is no limit to the number of family members and friends who may attend the university-wide Commencement exercises; tickets are not needed. For further information on the university-wide ceremony, contact University Special Events at (414) 288-7431 or visit the Commencement website. Department Commencement ceremonies, if occurring, may require tickets. For further information on department ceremonies, contact the appropriate department office.
To function properly and maintain high standards, academic and professional disciplines expect members to adhere to standards of conduct and professionalism. Marquette expects its graduate students, from the beginning of their work at Marquette, to demonstrate the utmost personal integrity and the highest standards of professionalism, including adherence to any commonly recognized codes of conduct or professional standards in the graduate student’s discipline. In dealing with the public or campus community, in clinics, practica, internships, classrooms or elsewhere, graduate students must adhere to these standards. Violations of these standards may be grounds for dismissal or other penalties.
All students in professional, laboratory, or clinical settings must maintain fully professional behavior at all times. If, in the judgment of the academic unit, a student is not living up to the non-academic standards, and that deficiency is a first offense or an offense deemed to be less serious in nature, a warning letter may be issued by the department to the student. If, however, the unsatisfactory behavior is a repeat offense or is more serious in nature, a recommendation may be made to the dean of the Graduate School that the student be dismissed from the graduate program.
Student Conduct Code and Procedures
Graduate students are responsible for complying with the regulations and/or procedures of the Graduate School or the Graduate School of Management, as applicable, as well as those set forth in the online At Marquette student handbook. Violations of regulations found in the student handbook will be administered by the Office of Student Development. If there is a conflict between the two applicable regulations or procedures, the Graduate School’s will govern. If there are multiple components to the case, they may be separated and reviewed independently by the appropriate authorities.
Confidentiality of Proprietary Information
The university recognizes that the primary purpose of research and scholarship is to train future scholars and disseminate new knowledge for the benefit of humankind. However, commercially valuable inventions and discoveries also may result. Graduate students, during the course of their studies and work at the university, may receive access to confidential or proprietary information from the university, its faculty and employees, and/or private companies. A student, both while a student and thereafter, is expected to respect and maintain the confidentiality of such information. In certain unusual cases, a student may be asked to sign an additional confidentiality agreement. Unauthorized use or dissemination of another’s confidential or proprietary information is subject to appropriate legal recourse and/or academic discipline, including termination from the program.
Students must acquaint themselves with the University Intellectual Property Policy. Marquette University students are subject to the policy when, working for pay or for academic credit, they participate in faculty research programs.
All graduate students in degree status must enroll in either: adviser-approved course work; thesis, professional project, or dissertation credits; one of the continuation courses; or a combination of these every fall and spring term until graduation to maintain their graduate student status, unless all degree requirements are complete and a graduation application has been submitted. Graduate students who intend to graduate in August must enroll in one of the above courses during the summer term prior to their graduation. Students who fail to register for one of these terms will automatically be discontinued and must apply for readmission. Readmission requires departmental consent and the payment of all fees in arrears. Continuation courses allow those graduate students who have completed their degree requirements but are still working on their thesis, project or dissertation to be considered full-, half-, or less than half-time students.
Every graduate student, except those with non-degree status, must be enrolled each fall and spring term to maintain his or her status. Registration in the summer is only required if the student intends to graduate in August. A full-time load consists of 7 or more academic credits; three-quarter time consists of 5.25-6.99 credits; half-time consists of 4-5.249 academic credits; and less than half-time consists of less than 4 academic credits. All degree graduate students must enroll in adviser-approved academic course work; independent study; field placement; graduate assistant teaching or research; thesis, professional project, or dissertation credits; comprehensive exam preparation; or graduate standing continuation credits. Degree students who are still completing degree requirements and fail to enroll for a fall or spring term will be discontinued and must request, by email, readmission to the Graduate School with the endorsement of the department.
Thesis, Dissertation, or Professional Project Continuation
Students who have completed all credit requirements for their degree but need to continue work on their thesis, dissertation or professional project may retain graduate status by enrolling in Master’s Thesis Continuation (9994/9995/9996), Doctoral Dissertation Continuation (9997/9998/9999), or Professional Project Continuation (9991/9992/9993). Each of these non-credit courses will allow students to be considered full-time, half-time, or less than half-time, depending on the amount of work being completed on their project each term. Registration for Master’s Thesis Continuation, Doctoral Dissertation Continuation, or Professional Project Continuation requires completion of a registration form, identification of the type and amount of work to be done, and the approval of the student’s adviser or thesis/dissertation director (and director of graduate studies or chair if required by departmental policy).
Field Placement Continuation
Students who have completed all credit requirements for their degree but still must participate in a practicum or internship experience may retain graduate status by enrolling in Field Placement Continuation (9977/9978/9979). This non-credit offering will allow students to be considered full-time, half-time, or less than half-time depending on the amount of work being devoted to their placement each term. Registration for Field Placement Continuation will require the consent of the student’s adviser or thesis/dissertation director (and director of graduate studies or chair if required by departmental policy) and completion of a registration form outlining the number of hours a student will devote to the Field Placement Continuation.
Graduate assistants who enroll in six academic credits in a term may earn full-time status by enrolling in a non-credit Graduate Assistant Teaching (9975) or Graduate Assistant Research (9976) course. Graduate fellows may enroll in six academic credit hours plus a non-credit Graduate Fellowship course (9974) to maintain full-time status.
Comprehensive Exam Preparation
Students who are preparing for comprehensive exams may retain graduate status by enrolling in the appropriate Master’s Comprehensive Exam Preparation course (9984/9985/9986) or Doctoral Comprehensive Exam Preparation course (9987/9988/9989). These zero-credit courses are graded on an SNC/UNC basis, and they may be taken alone or in conjunction with for-credit courses.
The Comprehensive Exam Preparation course will normally be taken during the term in which the student anticipates taking the exam, and it may be taken only once. If the student either fails the exam or for some reason does not take the exam, the student should register for Graduate Standing Continuation (9970) for less than half-time status for the following term to retake or complete the exam.
Graduate Standing Continuation
Students who are not able to take academic courses in a particular session, but need to maintain active academic status, may take a non-credit course entitled Graduate Standing Continuation (9970). This offering is designed to allow graduate students to engage in such activities as completing preparation for comprehensive examinations or participating in other projects. This option is designated as less than half-time, cannot be used in conjunction with other courses, and will not qualify an individual for financial aid.
Continuation Course Registration Procedures
All continuation courses shall be graded Satisfactory (SNC) or Unsatisfactory (UNC) and charged at the stated fee by the Office of the Bursar as listed in the Tuition, Fees and Housing section of this bulletin. Any needed registration forms can be found on the Graduate School forms website. Registration is as follows:
The appropriate registration form must be approved by the student’s adviser and director of graduate studies/chairperson, and the student must have registered for the course on or before the last day of registration.
Enrollment information may not be accurate for students who are not registered by the close of registration and may affect requests for information provided through the Office of the Registrar (such as enrollment verification requests from lending institutions, insurance companies, etc.).
Students enrolling in one of these courses must register to activate their desired status. Registration will require the consent of the student’s adviser and department, which must be secured prior to registering.
Registration requires the following procedures:
- The student and his/her adviser meet and complete the registration form. An explanation of the student’s involvement in non-credit academic work is required.
- The student will be given a permission number to be used during the registration process.
- The student registers via CheckMarq for the appropriate course, using the permission number received.
- The completed and approved form shall be delivered to the Graduate School.
Courses and Prerequisites
- The prerequisites for any graduate program include an undergraduate major which has qualified the student for either research or academic work at advanced levels.
- The courses described for each program are graduate offerings. These are numbered 6000-9999. Courses numbered 5000-5999 are courses that are taken for graduate credit, cross-listed with 4000-level undergraduate courses. The last three digits and titles of the 4000-level and the 5000-level cross-listed courses are identical. Prerequisites for undergraduate 4000-level courses, found in the Undergraduate Bulletin, may also be required for the 5000-level cross-listed courses. Undergraduates who anticipate eventual graduate academic work are eligible to take 5000-level courses.
- All 5000-level courses are based on upper-division undergraduate courses that have been approved for graduate credit. With the approval of their department and the Graduate School, students may take a limited number of 5000-level courses and count them toward their degree requirements.
- Some courses are listed with a variable number of credits (e.g., 1-3 credit hours). Usually the department or college determines the specific number of credits for these courses each term. This information is published in the Snapshot or in CheckMarq prior to registration for each term. For a few variable credit courses, (e.g., master's thesis, doctoral dissertation) the bulletin indicates the possible number of credits which might be taken during a given term. Students should consult with their adviser before registering for these types of classes to determine the appropriate number of credits for which to enroll.
- The specific courses offered during any given term will be listed on CheckMarq for that term.
The maximum academic course load for a graduate student is 13 semester hours of course work for fall or spring term. Residents in the graduate dental programs have higher limits. Seven hours are the maximum permitted for each of the summer sessions but no more than 13 credits for the entire summer term. Teaching or research assistants may register for a maximum of ten semester hours each fall or spring term and seven hours for each of the summer sessions. Overloads must have the approval of the Graduate School on the Credit Overload Request form, available on the Marquette Central academic forms website.
The semester hour is the unit of academic credit used by Marquette University. Following is the minimally required contact hours for classes and is based on a 15-week semester:
- Classroom Based Courses: must meet a minimum of 50 minutes per credit, per week. In addition, it is expected that an additional workload will be assigned to equal 2 hours of course work outside the classroom for each 50 minutes of meeting time (e.g., a total of 170 minutes per credit, per week).
- Blended and Non-Classroom Based Courses: must include some form of instruction, and/or homework, and/or activity that equals a minimum of 170 minutes per credit, per week.
- Those courses that meet in a compressed format (i.e., fewer than 15 weeks), must make up the minimum of 170 minutes per credit, per week within the timeframe of the course offering.
Semester hour credit is given only in accordance with descriptions for individual courses, as published in the Graduate Bulletin. No credit is given for a course in which a student has never registered.
All graduate students are responsible for ascertaining and meeting all deadlines listed in the Academic Calendar. This includes, but is not limited to: deadlines for registration, withdrawing from courses, graduation applications, comprehensive exams, theses, essays, projects and dissertations.
Diplomas are typically distributed at the May Commencement ceremonies. Any special arrangements for the mailing or pick-up of May diplomas must be made using the Diploma/Certificate Request forms on the Marquette Central academic forms website. Likewise, August and December diplomas are available for pick up or can be requested by mail in the same manner.
This section applies to all sections below: Adding Courses, Dropping Courses and Withdrawing from All Courses for a Term.
A student is responsible to ensure that his/her course schedule for each term accurately reflects the courses he/she plans to attend. A student may not attend courses in which he/she has not officially registered in CheckMarq. Changes in a graduate student’s enrollment are under the jurisdiction of the Graduate School. Most enrollment changes, i.e., adding and withdrawing from courses, can be done using the online registration system (CheckMarq) prior to the close of registration for the session in which the class is offered, as indicated in the Academic Calendar. Instructions for adding or withdrawing from courses are available on the Course Registration page of the Marquette Central website. Instructions for using CheckMarq are available on the Student Self-Service instructions page of the Marquette Central website.
Students must be registered by the deadline to register for each session in which a class is offered, as outlined in the Academic Calendar. The university does not retroactively register students for courses after the deadline to register for a session or after a term is completed, and reserves the right to deny credit to any student who fails to officially register in any course within these time limitations. All courses for which the student is registered are subject to tuition and in some cases, additional fees. The student is responsible for any payment due on all officially registered courses, regardless of attendance.
After the close of registration each session, the student must notify the Graduate School office directly and must complete appropriate forms before any enrollment change will become effective. Once a permanent grade is assigned, it will not be changed except for institutional error or policy.
Federal financial aid regulations require that the University submit notification of all changes in status by students (full-time to half-time, etc.) to the U.S. Department of Education via the National Student Loan Data System within a certain period of time. The University therefore reserves the right to withdraw a student from any class when it is evident the student did not start the class (grade of UW); stopped attending the class (grade of WA); or, due to incapacity, must be withdrawn from the class (grade of W). This policy is in effect for all students, regardless of any financial aid award.
Failure to officially withdraw from classes, or the University, according to established deadlines in the Academic Calendar, the procedures referenced below, and the timelines, as published by the Bursar's Office, will not relieve the student of responsibility to pay for any tuition/fees owed for such classes. In addition, the student's financial aid may be adjusted as required by federal and state refund calculations and institutional policy based on the official withdrawal date. The student's withdrawal will be reported to the National Student Loan Data System should any loan deferments need to be canceled at the time of withdrawal. Finally, the date on which all withdrawal forms are submitted to the University will be the date used for any refund calculations.
Students who must add one or more courses after the close of registration must submit a Request to Add a Course form, available online at the Graduate School forms website. New courses will not be added to a student’s enrollment unless a completed Request to Add a Course form, with the signature of the course instructor, is returned to the Graduate School office by the student's department. Late registration is not guaranteed. Because the deadline to register was missed, the Graduate School reserves the right to deny the registration, based on the circumstance that resulted in the student's late registration request.
Students who, after the close of registration, decide to withdraw from one or more, but not all courses in a particular term or summer session must notify the Graduate School office by obtaining a Request to Drop a Course(s) form online at the Graduate School forms website. Failure to officially withdraw from classes, according to established procedures and the withdrawal timelines, as published by the Bursar's Office, will not relieve the student of responsibility to pay for any tuition/fees owed for such classes. In addition, the student’s financial aid may be adjusted as required by federal and state refund calculations and institutional policy based on the official withdrawal date, and the student’s withdrawal will be reported to the National Student Clearinghouse for purposes of canceling any loan deferments the student may be receiving at the time of withdrawal. It is extremely important that the student contact the Graduate School office as soon as the decision to withdraw is made. Changes will not be processed or be considered official until the appropriate forms, with all required signatures, are returned to the Graduate School office. Forms may be mailed, dropped off in person, or faxed to (414) 288-1902. Tuition refunds and W (Withdrawal) grades will be based on the date that the form is submitted to the Graduate School office, not on the date that the student last attended classes or signed the form.
A student who must withdraw from a course with a W (Withdrawal) grade must do so before the deadline date listed in the Academic Calendar. Due to excessive absences or other reasons, including failure to formally withdraw before the deadline, a student may be administratively withdrawn from a course and incur a grade of either ADW (Administrative Withdrawal), UW (Unexcused Withdrawal), WA (Withdrawn-Excessive Absences) or F (Failure). If an ADW, UW or WA grade has already been assigned, it will not be replaced with the W grade.
When withdrawing from any portion of a course load, students must carefully consider the ability of their remaining enrollment to satisfy any enrollment requirements to which they might be subject due to applications for student loans, loan repayment deferments, visas, etc. In the case of a UW grade, the fact that a student did not attend class does not relieve that student of the obligation to pay any tuition and/or fees that are due. Students assume responsibility for all consequences as a result of receiving any withdrawal grade. The consequences may include, but are not limited to: a delay in graduation, dismissal from the degree program, external institutions/entities viewing these grades as failing grades, loss of eligibility for certain scholarships and/or financial aid, loss of full-time status and/or loss of any refunds.
Withdrawing From All Courses for a Term
Students enrolled for one or more classes who, after the close of registration, decide to discontinue study for the term must notify the Graduate School office and complete a Request to Drop a Course(s) form on the Graduate School forms website. The same rules, procedures, and cautions for partial withdrawals also apply to complete withdrawals. (Refer to Dropping Courses, above.) Withdrawing from all courses will not automatically withdraw a student from a graduate program, but it might affect the student’s eligibility to register in subsequent terms.
Every graduate student, except those with non-degree or temporary status, must be enrolled each fall and spring term to maintain his or her status. Registration in the summer is only required if the student intends to graduate in August. A full-time load consists of 7 or more academic credits; three-quarter time consists of 5.25-6.99 credits; half-time consists of 4-5.249 academic credits; and less than half-time consists of less than 4 academic credits.
Family Education Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA)
In compliance with the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act, Marquette University notifies its students each term of their rights to inspect, amend and prevent disclosure of their education records. In addition, Marquette’s policy regarding education records can be found in the FERPA policy on the Marquette Central academic policies website.
All grade appeals shall be heard for the Graduate School by the school or college that teaches the course, following the rules of that school or college. Their decision is final, and no further appeal is available. In schools or colleges with a departmental structure, the appeal procedure usually begins with the department chairperson.
The following letter grades and their achievement equivalents are used by instructors in the Graduate School to evaluate a student’s performance in a course. Grade points corresponding to each letter grade determine a student’s academic average and eligibility to graduate. Each grade, A through F, has a specific grade point value. The grade points earned in any course equal the grade point value of the grade multiplied by the number of semester hours credited. The grade point average (GPA) is found by dividing the total grade points earned by the total number of semester hours credited in those courses for which grade points have been assigned. Determination of the cumulative GPA will be based on all courses taken during the student's graduate career, including prerequisite and repeated courses, if any. Note: Credits that are accepted for a Marquette degree, if transferred from another university, will not be included when calculating the student’s grade point average. The official Marquette GPA of all students is calculated by the student information system and this GPA will not be rounded up or down for any reason.
All graduate students must maintain a grade point average of at least 3.000 to graduate. (For the effect of F and U grades, refer to Academic Review.) Graduate students may not be assigned a CD or a D grade in any course whatsoever, including undergraduate courses.
Letter grades with or without grade points are used, by Marquette faculty to evaluate a student's performance in a course. All grades described below, with the exception of I, IC and IE grades are permanent grades. No additional work may be submitted by the student once permanent grades are assigned during final grading for the session in which the class is offered. Likewise, no additional work may be submitted once the deadline to submit work for the removal of the temporary grades of I, IC or IE has passed.
|C||Minimally acceptable on a limited basis for graduate credit||2.000|
|CD||Not approved for graduate students|
|D||Not approved for graduate students|
Note: Grades of CD and D are not approved for graduate students, including those enrolled in undergraduate courses.
Grade points are not affected by the following grades:
|ADW||Administrative Withdrawal; a permanent grade indicating student was withdrawn from the course for administrative reasons, as determined by approved personnel of the university, including but not limited to the dean, or personnel of a committee involved in formal hearing and/or appeal process.|
|AU*||Audit; a permanent grade indicating excluded from attempted credits.|
|AUA*||Audit; a permanent grade indicating included in attempted credits.|
|CR||Credit; a permanent grade indicating equivalent work of C or better.|
|I||Incomplete; a temporary grade assigned on a pre-arranged basis indicating inability to complete the course and/or take the final exam, due to circumstances beyond the control of the student; and, therefore, completion of assignments/exam will be allowed after the term has ended.|
|IC||Course Incomplete; a temporary grade indicating the course is not completed by the end of the term in which the course is scheduled; assigned to all students enrolled in the course.|
|IE||Incomplete Extension; a temporary grade indicating an extension to the I grade removal deadline; assigned by the college office to those students who, due to circumstances beyond their control were unable to complete the required work by the I grade removal deadline.|
|NC||No Credit; a permanent grade indicating equivalent work of less than C.|
|PI||Permanent Incomplete; a permanent grade indicating student did not remove the I grade by the published deadline, or the IC and IE grades by the deadlines indicated below.|
|SNC||Satisfactory completion; a permanent grade indicating equivalent work of C or better in a course bearing no credit.|
|UNC||Unsatisfactory completion; a permanent grade indicating equivalent work of less than C in a course bearing no credit.|
|S||Satisfactory completion; a permanent grade indicating equivalent work of C or better in a credit bearing, competency-based course.|
|SY||Satisfactory completion; a permanent grade indicating equivalent work of C or better in the first term of a series of year-long courses, where grades are assigned only in the final course in the series.|
|U||Unsatisfactory completion; a permanent grade indicating equivalent work of less that C in a credit bearing, competency-based course.|
|UW||Unexcused withdrawal; a permanent grade indicating withdrawal initiated by the faculty or college office when a student registered for a course, never attended and failed to officially withdraw.|
|UY||Unsatisfactory completion; a permanent grade indicating equivalent work of less than C in the first term of a series of year-long courses, where grades are assigned only in the final course in the series.|
|W**||Official withdrawal; a permanent grade indicating withdrawal initiated by the student, with approval of the college office.|
|WA||Withdrawn-Excessive Absences; a permanent grade indicating withdrawal initiated by the faculty or college office due to excessive absences in the course.|
Refer to Audit, below.
Signifies an official withdrawal with the approval of the dean of the Graduate School.
Clarification of Grades
Any student who is administratively withdrawn from the university will receive this grade in all classes for the term/session. Likewise, any student who is administratively withdrawn from a single class will receive this grade in the class. Administrative withdrawal is an action normally taken by the university for disciplinary, conduct, lack of professional competence, or academic reasons other than low grades or lack of degree progress. This grade is assigned by the Graduate School or the Office of the Registrar, depending on the reason and the office requesting the administrative withdrawal. This grade will take precedence over any other grade assigned to the student. Students assume responsibility for all consequences that ensue as a result of receiving any withdrawal grade. These consequences may include, but are not limited to: a delay in graduation, external institutions/agencies viewing these grades as failing grades, loss of eligibility for certain scholarships and/or financial aid, loss of full-time status and/or loss of a refund.
Students must first register for a course via CheckMarq, then request the audit option from the Graduate School. The Audit Request Form is located on the Graduate School forms website. The deadline to request the audit option for each session is listed on the Academic Calendar. Students who have requested this option prior to the deadline for the session in which the class is offered are assigned the AU grade; students who have requested this option after the deadline to request this option for the session in which the class is offered are assigned the AUA grade. The AUA grade will affect the ability to repeat a class and may affect satisfactory academic progress. Classes being audited are not charged at the normal tuition rate. Refer to the Tuition, Fees and Housing section of this bulletin for information on tuition rates.
Under no circumstances may the undergraduate CR/NC option be exercised by a graduate student taking an undergraduate course for graduate credit.
Graduate students required to take undergraduate courses as prerequisites or to remedy deficiencies may not take those courses for S/U grades, as this option is not available.
However, a few select graduate courses are offered for S/U grades only. Courses of this type usually are limited to practica, department colloquia, or special seminar courses. Students should check the individual course descriptions in this bulletin and the grading basis when conducting a class search in CheckMarq to determine whether a course is offered on this basis.
For the effect of U grades, refer to Academic Review.
This withdrawal is initiated by the faculty or college office when a student registered for a course, never attended and failed to officially withdraw.
The fact that a student did not attend class, does not relieve that student of the obligation to pay any tuition and/or fees that are due. Students assume responsibility for all consequences that ensue as a result of receiving any withdrawal grade. Theses consequences may include, but are not limited to: a delay in graduation, external institutions/entities viewing these grades as failing grades loss of eligibility for certain scholarships and/or financial aid, loss of full-time status and/or loss of the 100% refund. Refund calculation for this grade will be based on the date the University is first informed of the non-attendance.
This grade is initiated by the student. Students assume responsibility for all consequences that ensue as a result of receiving any withdrawal grade. These consequences include, but are not limited to: a delay in graduation, external institutions/entities viewing these grades as failing grades, loss of eligibility for certain scholarships and/or financial aid, loss of full-time status and/or loss of a refund.
This grade is initiated by the faculty or college office and is assigned due to excessive absences in the course; once assigned, the WA grade cannot be overwritten by a W grade. As with the W grade, students assume responsibility for all consequences that ensue as a result of receiving this grade.
There are two types of grade adjustments: changing of a temporary grade (I, IC or IE) to a permanent grade and correcting a permanent grade.
Temporary Grades — I, IC, IE
Graduate students who do not complete course requirements during the term in which the class is offered may be given one of two temporary grades: an I when the course work and/or final examination has not been completed; an IE, when the removal of an I grade deadline extension is needed.
The I grade will only be approved for these conditions: The student was unable to complete the course and/or take the final exam due to circumstances beyond the control of the student, the I grade was approved by the faculty member prior to the grading deadline for the term in which the course is offered and the student's performance merits this exception. If these conditions are not met, the instructor will assign the grade that reflects both the quality of the work completed and the significance of the work/exam that has not been completed.
The IE grade will only be approved for these conditions: The student was unable to complete the course and/or take the final exam due to circumstances beyond the control of the student by the deadline to remove the I grade and the extension has been approved via student request prior to the deadline to remove the I grade, as published in the Academic Calendar. The Request for Extension of I Grade Deadline is located on the Graduate School forms website.
The IC grade is issued when the course extends beyond the grading period of the term in which the class started and is assigned to all students in the class, i.e., may not be used for individual students in a class with more than one student enrolled.
It is the responsibility of the faculty member to submit a grade change form, found in the Faculty Center in CheckMarq, to change an I, IC or IE to a permanent grade. The grade change deadline listed in the Academic Calendar pertains to the I grade. For this grade, the student is obligated to submit all missing work to the instructor by the deadline, or request an extension to the Graduate School before the deadline. The IE grade must be removed by the deadline, as outlined to the student at the time the IE grade was approved. The IC grade removal is faculty initiated and must be removed once the class is complete; however, in all cases the IC grade must be changed within one year of the assigned IC grade. Once the deadline has passed for the I, IE or IC without a grade change, these grades will become a permanent grade of PI.
Correcting a Permanent Grade
Changing a permanent grade, because of miscalculation on the part of the instructor or a misunderstanding between the instructor and the student, may be initiated by either the student or the instructor. Changing a permanent grade should be done within six months of the end of the term.
A graduate student who has been officially accepted into the Graduate School can earn graduate credit for a course if the course is a 5000-level course or higher. Graduate students taking courses while in a non-degree status may request subsequent transfer of credits to their degree program, once formally admitted to a degree program, by submitting a Master’s Degree Transfer of Credit Request Form, available online at the Graduate School forms website.
All students must apply for graduation in CheckMarq by the deadline specified in the Academic Calendar. Graduation deadlines are scheduled well in advance of the date of Commencement to allow time for student academic audits and for printing diplomas, graduation invitations and program booklets.
The awarding of a degree or certificate is contingent upon the student’s successful completion of all program requirements prior to the date of graduation. Participation in commencement does not mean a student has graduated. A cumulative grade point average of 3.000 or above is also required to graduate. Any exceptions to the total credits and minimum grade point average requirements for any degree and/or certificate must be approved by the provost. If a student fails to graduate at the time originally anticipated, he or she must reapply online for the next graduation before the appropriate deadline stated in the Academic Calendar.
Students who have completed all of their degree or certificate requirements prior to a specific graduation date, but who have missed the graduation application deadline, may request a letter from the Graduate School certifying the completion of their program; however, in order for the degree to be conferred, the student must still apply for graduation and the diploma will reflect the next graduation date. Furthermore, the university reserves the right to graduate a student without a graduation application on file, once all degree requirements are complete.
Policy Governing Graduation Dates
Marquette University offers graduation on a weekly basis during the summer months and on a monthly basis during the academic year. However, each college may develop a policy that will guide the implementation of this process for students in that college. This statement addresses the policy as implemented by the Graduate School.
It is the policy of the Graduate School that only specific additional graduation dates will be implemented, and then only for students in specific academic disciplines. The additional graduation dates will be used to accommodate students who will be earning or have earned a professional certificate issued by an agency other than Marquette University. This will include Wisconsin teaching licensure, the licensure in clinical psychology, and the specialty certificates in orthodontics, endodontics, and prosthodontics issued by the American Dental Association.
All graduate students other than those listed in the paragraph above will be restricted to graduating in May, August, or December of each year according to the Academic Calendar. In addition to these three regular graduations, the following additional graduation cycles will be implemented for the groups of students specified:
- Last Friday of June – This will be utilized specifically for students in educational policy and leadership who are completing their student teaching, where the student teaching requirement is the final requirement necessary for graduation. This applies to master’s degree and certificate students. Additionally, graduate dental students earning their master’s degree and specialty certificate in orthodontics, endodontics, or prosthodontics may be eligible for this graduation date on an exception basis if they fail to meet the May graduation deadline for approval of the thesis.
- In the case of both education and graduate dental students, applications for June graduation must be submitted by the deadline for May graduation.
- Graduate dental students must submit an approved thesis and all other graduation requirements no later than June 1.
- Last working day of September – This option will be available for clinical psychology doctoral students who complete their pre-doctoral internship and/or their dissertation defense and dissertation submission after the deadlines established for the August graduation, but before the September graduation deadline. Students shall be responsible for applying for September graduation, and for completing all graduation requirements, no later than the last working day of August.
- Last working day of October - This option will be available for clinical psychology doctoral students who complete their pre-doctoral internship and/or their dissertation defense and dissertation submission after the deadlines established for the September graduation, but before the October graduation deadline. Students shall be responsible for applying for October graduation, and for completing all graduation requirements, no later than the last working day of September.
- Last working day of January – This option will be available for clinical psychology doctoral students who complete their pre-doctoral internship and/or their dissertation defense and dissertation submission after the deadlines established for the December graduation, but before the January graduation deadline. In addition, this deadline will be available for students in educational policy and leadership who are completing their student teaching, where the student teaching requirement is the final requirement necessary for graduation. This will apply to master’s degree and certificate students.
- Students in clinical psychology shall be responsible for applying for January graduation and for completing all graduation requirements no later than the last working day of December.
- Students in educational policy and leadership shall be responsible for applying for January graduation no later than the last working day of December.
- Last working day of February - This option will be available for clinical psychology doctoral students who complete their pre-doctoral internship and/or their dissertation defense and dissertation submission after the deadlines established for the January graduation, but before the February graduation deadline. Students shall be responsible for applying for February graduation, and for completing all graduation requirements, no later than the last working day of January.
In exceptional cases, students enrolled in other graduate programs not explicitly covered in the above policy may also be permitted to graduate during the additional graduation cycles providing that the student applies to graduate, has the support of their department, and the Graduate School approves of their inclusion in the alternate cycle.
Immunization and Tuberculosis Screening Requirements
Marquette University requires all newly admitted and readmitted undergraduate, graduate, and professional students to provide dates of certain immunizations and complete a TB Screening questionnaire for tuberculosis. Proof of immunization for Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR), Varicella (chicken pox), Tetanus/Diphtheria/Pertussis and completion of a tuberculosis screening questionnaire is required and must be completed electronically via the Next Step Forms located in Checkmarq. The directions can be found on the Marquette University Medical Clinic (formerly Student Health Service) website. Failure to complete the required immunization and TB screening questionnaire within 30 days of the start of the student’s first term or the readmitted term at Marquette will result in the placement of a registration “hold” on future registrations. The hold will be removed once the immunization and screening requirements have been met. Health Sciences, Nursing and Dental students may be required by their departments or colleges to receive additional immunizations. Contact your department or college for specific requirements.
Independent Study (6995 and 8995) courses provide students the opportunity to study and investigate areas of interest not available through normal course offerings. A 6995/8995 course is taken on the recommendation of the student’s adviser and with the approval of the department chairperson. An Independent Study approval form, which must be completed for each 6995/8995 course and is available on the Marquette Central academic forms website. Normally, no more than six credits of 6995/8995 course work can be included in a master’s degree program, no more than nine credits in a doctoral program.
See the Readmission section of this bulletin.
Graduate students who repeat a course may do so under certain conditions:
- The repeated course is taken at Marquette.
- The repeated course is identical to the original course in subject, catalog number, title, subtitle and credits.
- The repeated course is graded with the same grading options as the original, i.e., students may not exercise a different grading option for a repeated course, unless it is now a required grading scheme.
- A course in which a failing grade is earned may be repeated only once.
A failing grade is defined as any grade that is unacceptable to be counted toward degree completion. Thus, while the Graduate School’s definition of a minimally acceptable grade is C, some departments will not accept a grade below a B or BC. In those cases, the department-defined minimally acceptable grade will be used to define a passing grade for students in those programs.
- Once a passing grade is earned in a course, the course may not be repeated.
- There are certain courses that are exempt from this policy and may be repeated. Examples are thesis and dissertation courses, independent study courses, topics courses, internship and clinical courses, UWM and MCW exchange courses, and most continuation courses.
- If a student repeats a course that was transferred to Marquette, only the Marquette course/grade will be reflected in the total credits earned.
Should a student need to take a course more than once, other than those referenced in item #6 above, a request to repeat must be filed using the Request Permission to Repeat a Course form found on the Marquette Central academic forms website. This request will only be approved if the student has not earned a passing grade in the course per Graduate School standards.
Additionally, the following policy defines the calculation of cumulative GPA and credit totals:
- All courses taken while a student is in a graduate career and pursuing a specific degree/program combination will be included in the calculation of a student’s cumulative GPA.
- When a course is repeated in an effort to earn a passing grade, both grades will be included in the calculation of the student’s cumulative GPA.
- An F grade will have a strong negative effect on a student’s term and cumulative GPAs. Nothing in this policy will alter the normal end-of-term academic review process, which may result in the student being placed on probation or being considered for disenrollment.
Research Involving Humans, Animals, Radioisotopes or Recombinant DNA/Transgenic Organisms
If human subjects, animals, radioisotopes, or recombinant DNA/transgenic organisms are involved in a student's research, the student must also satisfy other federally- and state-mandated requirements prior to initiating the research. These requirements are administered by the Marquette University Office of Research Compliance (ORC).
- For human subjects, the student must submit a protocol for review and approval by the Marquette University Institutional Review Board prior to initiating the project. Note: IRB approval may take up to a month or more.
- For animal research, the student must be properly trained and listed as personnel on a faculty member’s active Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee-approved animal protocol. Students are not allowed to serve as principal investigators on Marquette University animal protocols.
- For radioactive material use, only authorized users are allowed to obtain this material. Students must complete the training to become a radiation worker; radiation workers can work with radioactive materials only under the supervision of an authorized user.
- For recombinant DNA or transgenic organism research, students are only allowed to work with these materials while under the direct supervision of a faculty member who has received Institutional Biosafety Committee approval.
For more information about these four areas of compliance, including forms and submission procedures, refer to the ORC website. Students may contact the Office of Research Compliance for more information by phone at (414) 288-7570 (human subjects and radiation safety) or (414) 288-6271 (animals and biosafety). Approval of the outline by the Graduate School does not constitute approval by ORC. Note: Non-compliance may affect acceptance of the student's project as part of his or her degree.
Temporary Withdrawal from Graduate Program
Marquette University supports a temporary withdrawal from graduate program policy to assist graduate students who are temporarily unable to continue their programs. The temporary withdrawal may extend for up to one academic year. Under unusual circumstances, a second year of absence may be requested. Reasons for requiring a temporary withdrawal may include: bereavement, illness, injury, care giving, military service, maternity, and paternity. Students requesting a temporary withdrawal from their graduate program must submit a formal request to the Graduate School via their department/school/unit chairperson or director. Students granted a temporary withdrawal will not have the right to use university facilities during the time of their temporary withdrawal. This includes the library, the recreation center, and any other resources normally granted to enrolled students. The temporary withdrawal must be requested prior to the start of a term and will not be approved retroactively.
Preparing the Application for Temporary Withdrawal from Graduate Program
In consultation with the supervising faculty member, the Request for Temporary Withdrawal from Graduate Program form, found on the Graduate School forms website is to be completed by the student, and signed by both the student and the adviser or supervising faculty member. The application is to be submitted to the chairperson/director for review and signature before being forwarded to the Graduate School for consideration on a case-by-case basis. The application should be made in advance of the anticipated temporary withdrawal, and the termination of the withdrawal should coincide with the end of a semester or session.
In situations where it is necessary for a student to leave during a term, the student should seek a late withdrawal for that term.
Temporary withdrawals will not be granted retroactively, i.e., for previous terms, unless the Temporary Withdrawal from Graduate Program approval process was initiated at the beginning of a term and the decision of the university was delayed.
It is the student’s responsibility to ensure that the proposed temporary withdrawal is compatible with the regulations of any granting agency from which funding would normally be received during the temporary withdrawal period, and that such agencies are informed of the proposed temporary withdrawal. Students on student loan programs are responsible for determining the consequences that such a temporary withdrawal may have on their repayment status prior to applying for a temporary withdrawal from their graduate program. International students are advised to consult with the Office of International Education regarding their immigration status prior to applying for a temporary withdrawal from their graduate program.
Students granted a temporary withdrawal from their graduate program will have their time-to-completion of degree extended by the amount of time granted by their temporary withdrawal. The continuous enrollment policy will also be held in abeyance during this time. Students granted a temporary withdrawal are not held to the readmission process unless they do not enroll in the term indicated on the Request for Temporary Withdrawal from Graduate Program form.
Students should make every effort to resolve any grades of incomplete prior to beginning a temporary withdrawal. However, students who begin a temporary withdrawal with one or more unresolved grades of incomplete must negotiate with the course instructor(s) a time line for completion of the academic work leading to the incomplete, and must submit the time line to the Graduate School.
Graduate student assistants who are granted a temporary withdrawal from their graduate program will have their salary and stipend suspended during the period of their withdrawal.
Students are expected to complete all requirements for their degrees in the time allowed: six years for master’s degrees and eight years for doctoral (Ph.D. and D.N.P.) degrees. The time period begins with the date of admission to degree status, or with the date of admission to non-degree or temporary status in the same or closely-related program. The start of the time period is not affected by transfer credit that may have been taken prior to admission to Marquette.
Students who are unable to complete their degrees within the allowable time may petition the Graduate School for an extension; Request for Extension of Time forms are available on the Graduate School forms website. To ensure timely consideration, the Request for Extension of Time form should be filed early in the term in which the time limit expires. If the extension is approved, the student is notified of the expectations for progress toward completion of the degree. If the extension is denied, the student is terminated from the graduate program at the end of the term during which the time limit will expire.
Failure to complete the program or to obtain an approved extension of time may result in the student being administratively withdrawn from the program. In such cases, students must follow the guidelines for readmission in order to be considered for readmission to their program of study.
An official transcript is a complete and unabridged copy of all academic work attempted at Marquette and includes only those courses attempted at Marquette. Partial official transcripts are never produced. Transfer and test credits accepted toward a Marquette degree are recorded, but the grades earned are not on the Marquette transcript. Course and grade information contained on the transcript is released only upon written consent from the student, as required by the federal Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 (FERPA), or as required by law. See the University FERPA Policy located on the Marquette Central academic policies website.
The university accepts only official transcripts for the purposes of posting transfer credit or courses to the Marquette record and/or verification of a degree, diploma or certificate completion at another institution. Official transcripts are those that are printed on security paper and come directly via U.S. Mail from another institution's record/registrar office to the Office of the Registrar (OTR), the Graduate School or are delivered electronically directly to these offices via a secured third party method that has been verified by the sending institution. All other transcripts are considered unofficial and will not be accepted or processed. Once an official transcript is received, the transcript will be used to determine credits accepted toward the graduate degree.
The following notations will appear on the permanent academic record of the student, including the official transcripts of the university:
- Required to Withdraw for Academic Misconduct: Student was dismissed due to academic dishonesty. "Required to Withdraw for Academic Misconduct" appears on both unofficial and official transcripts. If the student is allowed to return after this dismissal, "Reinstated to University" will also permanently appear on transcript.
- Required to Withdraw for Academic Reasons: Student was dismissed due to academic performance. "Required to Withdraw for Academic Reasons" appears on both unofficial and official transcripts. If the student is allowed to return after this dismissal, "Reinstated on Probation" will also permanently appear on transcript.
- Required to Withdraw for Non-Academic Reasons-Expulsion: Student was dismissed due to student conduct violation. "Required to Withdraw for Non-Academic Reasons: Expulsion" appears on both unofficial and official transcripts. Expulsion is the most serious university disciplinary action and involves the permanent exclusion of the student from the university.
- Required to Withdraw for Non-Academic Reasons-Suspension: Student was dismissed due to student conduct violation. "Required to Withdraw for Non-Academic Reasons: Suspension" appears on both unofficial and official transcripts. If the student is allowed to return after this dismissal, "Reinstated to University" will also permanently appear on transcript.
- Required to Withdraw for Professional Integrity Reasons: Student was dismissed due to lack of integrity in a professional setting, such as a clinical or field placement. "Required to Withdraw for Professional Integrity" appears on both unofficial and official transcripts. If the student is allowed to return after this dismissal, "Reinstated to University" will also permanently appear on transcript.
- Required to Withdraw for Professional Performance Reasons: Student was dismissed due to poor performance in a professional setting, such as a clinical or field placement. "Required to Withdraw for Professional Performance" appears on both unofficial and official transcripts. If the student is allowed to return after this dismissal, "Reinstated to University" will also permanently appear on transcript.
- Required to Withdraw for Unsatisfactory Degree Progress: Student was dismissed due to lack of degree progress. "Required to Withdraw for Unsatisfactory Degree Progress" appears on both unofficial and official transcripts. If the student is allowed to return after this dismissal, "Reinstated to University" will also permanently appear on transcript.
Transfer of Credit
In order to protect the academic integrity and rigor of a Marquette graduate degree, limits are placed on the number of credit hours that may be transferred from other institutions, from Marquette in a different program, or from Marquette in the same program but in a different status (temporary or non-degree). Only credits directly applicable to a student’s Marquette degree program will be considered for transfer, and there is no guarantee that a transfer request will be approved. Credits to be considered for transfer must be graduate-level credits or upper-level undergraduate credits that are acceptable for graduate credit at the institution offering the course.
Credits that are accepted for a Marquette degree, if transferred from another university, will not be included when calculating the student’s GPA. However, credits taken at Marquette in another program or in the same program but in a different status (temporary or non-degree), if accepted for transfer into a degree program, will be included in the student’s GPA. Only courses in which a grade of B or above has been earned may be transferred for credit into a master’s program or used on a Doctoral Program Planning Form.
Credits approved for transfer from a school using a quarter-system will transfer as two-thirds credit each when converted to Marquette’s term system. Transfers from schools using a trimester system will vary by school and must be evaluated individually.
Students are strongly urged to consult their advisers before submitting a transfer request and before taking any course for which they intend to request transfer credit.
Courses should not be taken at another university during a student’s final term if those credits will be necessary to meet graduation requirements. If a course or courses are taken at another university during a student’s final term at Marquette, his/her graduation will be delayed until the following graduation cycle due to the time necessary to receive an official transcript and process the transfer credit.
Upon recommendation of the department and concurrence by the dean of the Graduate School, 9-15 credit hours of the program’s requirement for course work (exclusive of thesis) may be accepted for transfer depending on the total number of credits needed for the degree. The following limits apply:
- 9 credits into a degree program requiring 36 or fewer course credits
- 12 credits into a degree program requiring 37-48 course credits
- 15 credits into a degree program requiring 49 or more course credits
Credits approved for transfer will normally have been earned within the six year period prior to admission to the Graduate School at Marquette. If the credits to be transferred are older than six years at the time of admission, the academic department to which the student is being admitted is expected to require evidence of proficiency with the material in the course(s) being considered for transfer. The six-year period that a master’s student has to complete his/her degree will begin with admission to the Graduate School at Marquette and is not affected by prior transfer credit. There is no Graduate School requirement that a student must have completed a certain number of credits at Marquette prior to requesting transfer, but individual departments may have such a requirement. Students should consult their department adviser, director of graduate studies, or department graduate student handbook.
Only credit for courses directly comparable in content to the requirements of the current degree program, or comparable to elective courses available at Marquette, will be considered for transfer. No credits will be officially transferred into a degree program until the student has completed and submitted the Master’s Degree Transfer of Credit Request form, found on the at Graduate School forms website, and it has been approved by the Graduate School. Students must be sure that a final, official transcript is on file at the Graduate School in order for the form to be processed.
Graduate-level credits earned at Marquette, whether as a degree student in a different graduate program or as a non-degree or temporary student, may transfer following the same request and approval procedures outlined above. Students are responsible for initiating this process. Credits transferred between Marquette programs or statuses are included as part of the 9-15 credit transfer limit.
Master’s thesis credits taken at another institution are not transferable to Marquette. The six thesis credits required for a thesis-option master’s degree must be taken at Marquette.
Graduate credits both from other institutions and from Marquette are accepted for a doctoral program when a Doctoral Program Planning Form is approved. Credits taken as part of an earned master’s degree at another institution or at Marquette will normally be accepted and applied to the Marquette doctoral program up to a maximum of 30 credits. These credits must be specified on the Doctoral Program Planning Form. There is not normally an age limit for accepting credits from an earned master’s degree.
Prior graduate-level credits taken, whether at another institution or at Marquette, that are not part of an earned master’s degree are considered on a case-by-case basis in consultation with the student’s adviser, the department, and the Graduate School. These credits must be specified on the Doctoral Program Planning Form. The number of credits that may be applied toward the doctorate are limited. Students should consult the Academic Programs Overview-Doctoral Degree Credit Requirements section of this bulletin. Such credits will normally have been earned within six years of admission to the Marquette doctoral degree. In cases in which the age of the credits exceeds six years at the time of admission, the academic department shall require evidence of proficiency of the content contained in the courses to be accepted.
Doctoral dissertation credits taken at another university are not transferable to Marquette. All twelve dissertation credits required for completion of a doctoral (Ph.D.) degree must be taken at Marquette.
Undergraduate Students in Graduate Courses
An undergraduate student may, with the permission of his or her home college and the department offering the course, register for a 5000-level or higher graduate course if the student has a B (3.000) or above grade point average. To register for a graduate credit bearing course, the undergraduate student must complete the Permission to Enroll in a Graduate Course form, available on the Graduate School forms website. Once all signatures of approval have been obtained and the student has received the permission number from the department offering the course, the student must then register for the course online through CheckMarq. The course cannot be taken under the CR/NC option.
See Enrollment Changes, above.
Working With Minors
Effective July 1, 2009, University Policy and Procedure 4-26 was established to provide a safe environment to those under the age of 18 years old participating in programs and activities at Marquette University. Unless an exception applies, programs that involve adults working with minors in university-sponsored programs and other programs held on campus must register with the Department of Risk Management. In addition, adults, before directly participating with minors in such programs and activities, must complete a criminal history background check; observe specific behavioral requirements; report all allegations of inappropriate conduct; and participate in mandatory training on protecting minors and on the behavioral and reporting requirements of the policy. The Department of Risk Management's website provides additional information on this topic and all required forms needed for this policy.